Advances in Teaching and Learning Technologies

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    What Students Want: Using A Need-based Innovation Approach for Digitizing Higher Education
    ( 2022-01-04) Brenk, Sebastian
    Incumbent organizations like universities lack capabilities of how to make sense of student learning needs to guide digitization activities that develop and implement new e-learning technologies. This paper contributes a methodological approach based on the jobs-to-be-done theory that assists universities in digitizing their learning and teaching processes. This study applies the Outcome Driven Innovation (ODI) approach to assess students’ learning needs in the learning process of higher education. The results from the ODI methods are valuable to create need-based data intelligence that supports sensemaking about digitization strategies at universities and fosters the development of e-learning platforms and analytics.
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    Towards Routinely Using Virtual Reality in Higher Education
    ( 2022-01-04) Majchrzak, Tim A. ; Radianti, Jaziar ; Fromm, Jennifer ; Gau, Michael
    Virtual reality promises to be a tool that can improve higher education. Immersive virtual environments offer the chance to enrich courses with experiential learning experiences. The technological possibilities evolve rapidly and more and more researchers report on adopting virtual reality for learning – albeit such work often has a more or less experimental character. However, the base of knowledge on using virtual reality in higher education is growing; educators who want to employ virtual reality to amend courses, to extend the curriculum with experiential learning, or who want to offer new content enabled through virtual reality, find increasingly rich advice. With this article, we contribute to this advice by providing insights from three research cases. Although these were experimental, their embedding into a larger project enables us to propose recommendations for educators. The ultimate aim of our work is the routine use of virtual reality in higher education.
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    Towards Better Support for Machine-Assisted Human Grading of Short-Text Answers
    ( 2022-01-04) Neumann, Gustaf ; Meisl, Alexander
    This paper aims at tools to help teachers to grade short text answers submitted by students. While many published approaches for short-text answer grading target on a fully automated process suggesting a grading result, we focus on supporting a teacher. The goal is rather to help a human grader and to improve transparency rather than replacing the human by an Oracle. This paper provides a literature overview of the numerous approaches of short text answer grading which were proposed throughout the years. This paper presents two novel approaches (answer completeness and natural variability) and evaluates these based on published exam data and several assessments collected at our university.
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    The Virtual Tutor: Combining Conversational Agents with Learning Analytics to support Formative Assessment in Online Collaborative Learning
    ( 2022-01-04) Lenk, Florian ; Schmidt, Sebastian
    The objective of this design science research project is to combine Learning Analytics data with a conversational agent communication interface, the Virtual Tutor, which is able to support formative assessment for educators and learners in online collaborative learning (OCL) environments. The main benefit for educators is providing user-adaptable Learning Analytics data requests to fit the information needs for formative assessment. Learners receive semi-automated feedback on their platform activity in form of reports, which shall trigger self-reflection processes. By extracting requirements from the potential users and deriving design principles, a conversational agent is implemented and evaluated in an online collaborative learning course. The results indicate that the Virtual Tutor reduces the task load of educators, supports formative assessment and gives scaffolded guidance to the learners by reflecting their performance, thus triggering self-reflection processes. This research provides a first step towards data supported (semi-)automated feedback systems for formative assessment in OCL courses.
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    The Relationship Between Students' Flow Experience and Their Behavior Data in Gamified Educational Systems
    ( 2022-01-04) Oliveira, Wilk ; Tenório, Kamilla ; Hamari, Juho ; Isotani, Seiji
    The number of students using online educational systems is increasing, especially after the growth of the use of this type of system due to the social isolation caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. This situation highlighted the challenge of analyzing the users' experience in this type of system, especially when evaluating more complex experiences, such as the flow experience. One of the most promising innovative alternatives is to use the behavior data logs produced by students in educational systems to analyze their experiences. In this paper, we conducted a study (N = 24) to analyze the relationships between the behavior data logs produced by students when using a gamified educational system and their flow experience during the system usage. Our results contribute to the automatic users' experience analysis in educational systems.
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    Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments and Adaptive Learning Systems – Development of Functionality Taxonomies
    ( 2022-01-04) Bockshecker, Alina ; Ebner, Katharina ; Smolnik, Stefan
    Especially against the background of the current coronavirus crisis, technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs) increasingly characterize teaching at universities. For the successful use and integration of TELEs, it is important to understand the functionalities of the technologies used. Based on the state of the art and following [1], we develop two taxonomies. The first taxonomy depicts eleven functionalities with different dimensions relevant for successfully designing TELEs. Sound knowledge of the functionalities supports research on adaptive learning within TELEs and the implementation of student-centered learning opportunities, which is structured in a second functionality taxonomy for adaptive learning systems (ALSs). We contribute to current research on TELEs and ALSs by providing a structured overview of functionalities and suggestions for further research with our research opportunities.
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    Posting versus Replying: The Effects of Instructor Participation in MOOC Discussion Forums
    ( 2022-01-04) Du, Zhao ; Wang, Fang ; Wang, Shan
    Previous research has suggested that the frequency of instructor participation in online discussion forums can affect student participation and subsequently their learning results in online courses. However , the different approaches of instructor participation and their effects have not been well studied, particularly in MOOCs of very large class sizes. This research investigates how instructor participation via posting vs. replying in online discussion forums affects student participation in MOOCs. Our results show that instructors mainly participate through replying rather than posting. However , instructor posting is more effective than instructor replying on enhancing student participation, and this advantage of instructor posting over replying increases with class size. Class size negatively moderates the positive effect of instructor replying, but not that of instructor posting. These findings implicate the necessity of a well-planned participation strategy for instructors to engage in MOOC discussion forums.
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    InnoPulse: a Tool to Support Collaborative Reflection in Creativity-Driven Engineering Projects
    ( 2022-01-04) De Paula, Danielly ; Hahn, David ; Matthies, Christoph ; Uebernickel, Falk
    To equip students with the practical capability to innovate, academic institutions are promoting industry collaboration projects, where students use creative approaches, such as, design thinking (DT), to solve complex business challenges. In creative team work, the ability to reflect upon and improve team dynamics is vital. However, research on the role of digital technology to support collaborative reflection is still in its infancy. This study presents a digital solution that uses micro surveys as an additional source of information for Educational Data Mining (EDM) analyses to support the collaborative reflection of students working in creativity-driven engineering projects. Using design science research, we identify the design requirements of the InnoPulse tool, implement the corresponding design features and evaluate our digital solution in a real-world educational setting. Our findings pave the way for the potential of ad-hoc data collection strategies to improve the collaborative reflection of students applying DT methods.
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    Immersive Virtual Reality Education Application – Four Development Iterations along Design Science Research Methodology
    ( 2022-01-04) Holopainen, Jani ; Lähtevänoja, Antti ; Tuunanen, Tuure
    This study introduces a research and development process of an immersive Virtual Reality (VR) education application. Altogether four application development iterations are showcased along the Design Science Research methodology. The results show how initial problems change and new problems occur during the course of a long-term DSR project with multiple iterations. Moreover, the study results confirm various previous findings, for example, that VR works better on higher learning levels such as application -level and personalization is a way to achieve this. In addition, 360 photos and videos were found to be easy and cost-efficient ways to increase personalization of VR applications. The results also suggest complementary and parallel use of online courses and VR applications in order to enable scalability. We also found positive learning experiences, interactions, and teacher image to be achieved with VR especially among small tech-savvy group of students. However, personalized learning paths and positive learning results are the preconditions for upbeat learning experiences.
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    Entrepreneurship Education Platform Design: The Relationships between Autodidactic Affordances and Experiential Learning Needs
    ( 2022-01-04) Dagoc, Francezca ; Abhari, Kaveh ; Roy, Vanessa ; Nobis, Elijah
    Along with recent technological innovation in education, Entrepreneurship Education Platforms (EEPs) have emerged as an effective solution to prepare students for entrepreneurial success. However, due to novelty, less is known of the success of EEPs regarding user experience, especially when these platforms offer self-regulated learning environments. In response, this study is an attempt to offer a framework to guide user experience design and evaluation of EEP. This study discusses the relationships between autodidactic affordances (administration, acquisition, application, and assessment affordances) and experiential needs (sensory, temporal, interactional, cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and metacognitive experience) and their importance in the success of EEP. The findings offer nuance to assessing the effectiveness of EEP and other online self-regulated learning environments.