M.S. - Microbiology (Marine Biology)

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
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    A survey of Hawaiian marine fungi and yeast
    ( 2006) Mahdi, Leena Emiko
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    Species Diversity and Community Structure of the Macrozooplankton of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii
    (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1969-12) Peterson, William Thornton
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    Diel Changes in the Vertical Distributions of Some Common Fish Larvae in Southern Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii
    (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1974-12) Watson, William
    Nine series of vertically-stratified zooplankton tows were made with a closing net at a single station in southern Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, between 31 August 1973 and 11 April 1974. Sampling periods occupied from 12 to 26 hours, with tows usually taken at about 3 m intervals between the surface and a maximum depth of 10 m. A total of 21,254 fish larvae of 49 kinds was collected. Six species were abundant: Foa brachygrammus, Omobranchus elongatus, Callionymus decoratus, Caranx mate, Stolephorus purpureus, and Abudefduf abdominalis. Blennius sp. and Gnathanodon speciosus were commonly taken in small numbers. These common larvae displayed five "distribution patterns: 1. F. brachygrammus and the smallest S. purpureus were most abundant near the surface at night and at depths below 4 m during the day; 2. C. mate and G. speciosus were dispersed throughout the water column at night and usually most abundant between 5 m and 6 m depth during the day; 3. Blennius sp., o. elongatus, and A. abdominalis were dispersed throughout the water column at night and concentrated near the surface during the day; 4. the larger ~. purpureus maintained a level of maximum abundance below 6 m day and night; 5. C. decoratus was taken at all depths at all times. Patterns 1, 2, and 3 are shown to be light-related. Pattern 4 is shown to be partially attributable to avoidance of the towed net by S. purpureus larvae larger than about 6mm, and a feeding-related migration is proposed to account for pattern 5. The observed patterns are analogous to those shown for fish larvae in the open ocean on scales of from 50 m to 200 m. It is proposed that Kaneohe Bay represents a vertically compressed ocean with respect to the vertical distribution of fish larvae.
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    The Effects of Light on Primary Productivity in South Kaneohe Bay
    (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1974-06) Lamberson, Phillip B.
    Primary production at a single station in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii was studied over a six-month period. Vertical profiles of production, plant biomass, light, and temperature were obtained and the data applied to a production model. The diel changes in surface production were measured and used to estimate daily production. Primary production per unit surface area was found to average 1.5 grams carbon per square meter per day and was higher on days with little vertical stratification and with lower incident radiation. Light appeared to limit production below .12 langleys per minute which occurred below about five meters depth.
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    Zooplankton Grazing in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii
    (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1972-05) Szyper, James Peter
    Grazing rates of several abundant zooplankters in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii were measured at different concentrations of natural phytoplankton. The concentration by volume of suspended particles, as determined with an electronic particle counter, was used as the estimate of food concentration. The relationship between grazing rate per animal and concentration of particulate food conformed closely to a hyperbolic model widely used to describe an organism's rate of uptake of food or other needed substrate as a function of the concentration of the substrate. Maximum observed grazing rates in the eutrophic south sector of the bay are near the maximum rates predicted by the model. The concentrations of particles in other areas of Kaneohe Bay do not appear to be high enough to permit grazing rates to approach their maximum levels. There appears to be no preference by the grazers for particles of a size other than the size most abundant in the environment.
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    The Effects of Dursban® Insecticide on Pocillopora damicomis (Cnidaria: Scleractinia)
    (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1992-12) Te, Franklyn Tan
    The effects of Dursban®, a chlorpyrifos-based pesticide, on reef-building corals was investigated. Short-term (96 hours) static bioassays with renewal of toxicant every 24 hours were conducted with Pocillopora damicomis colonies. Two sets of experiments were conducted. The first examined the toxicity of the commercial pesticide mixture made up of filtered seawater (0.45 µm) and the manufacturer's recommended dose for the treatment of lawns and gardens (0.91 mI/l). The second determined the toxicity of effluent seawater obtained from a soil column 24 hours after it was treated with Dursban® mixture (0.91 mi/l) at the manufacturer's recommended level of coverage (1.53 ml/12.6 cm2). In both experiments, coral branches were exposed to logarithmic dilutions of the toxicant mixture for up to four days. The 96 hour median lethal concentration (96 h LC50) for the pesticide mixture was found to be 1.2 x 10-7% of the original solution while the soil effluent mixture had a 96 hour LC50 of 7.0 x 10-8% of the effluent solution. Gas chromatographic analysis of the pesticide stock solution showed that the chlorpyrifos levels remained relatively stable for the duration of the experiment. Pesticide levels were monitored in the experimental test water at each dilution level prior to exposure of corals to determine actual pesticide concentration although several of the lower dilutions yielded concentrations below the analytical detection limit of 2 µg/l. Data gathered from the bioassay tests revealed high sensitivity of the coral Pocillopora damicomis to the two toxicant preparations. The soil effluent water was appreciably more toxic to the coral than the straight pesticide mixture. This was thought to reflect formation of more toxic breakdown products derived from chlorpyrifos after application to the soil column. Other factors, like the interactive effects between the chemical binders and dispersants within the commercial formulation and the soil may have contributed to the increase in toxicity of the soil effluent solution. Effluent water from pesticide-treated areas may be more toxic to corals than previously suspected.
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    The Effect of Temperature and Light on the Stable Isotopic Compostition of Reef Coral Skeletons
    (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1979-05) Weil, Sandra M.
    The reef corals Pocillopora damicornis and Montipora verrucosa were cultured under various controlled temperatures and light conditions at Ulupau Head Microcosm facility. The skeletal carbonate deposited under different experimental regimes was analyzed for 13C and 18O. Coral skeletal 013C values varied with light dose and correlated with changes in zooxanthellar pigment. The o13C value of skeletal aragonite seems to be controlled by oxidation of photosynthetically produced organic matter. Functionally significant relationships between coral skeletal o18O values and temperature have been determined. The temperature coefficients of the o18O values (-4.20) are the same as the first order coefficient in the equilibrium paleotemperature equation, but the o18O values have species-specific offsets from equilibrium. These offsets may be attributed to the activity of the coral's zooxanthellae. Based upon the results of this study a model of coral skeletal isotopic incorporation is presented.
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    Zonation of Reef Corals off the Kona Coast of Hawaii
    (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1975-05) Dollar, Stephen J.
    Analysis of the pattern of zonation of reef corals off the Kona coast of Hawaii revealed the existence of four clearly defined zones. This pattern was confirmed at three sites where corals were counted using a series of 45 meter long transects running parallel to shore from depths of 3 to 40 meters. Clustering analysis dendrographs, spatial changes in illumination and rates of water movement, as well as growth and survival of coral transplants also confirmed the zonation pattern. Each of the four zones is characterized by a dominant coral species, substratum type, depth, and range of physical conditions. Each zone also appears to be in a different stage of community succession due to the frequency of large scale environmental disturbances from winter storm waves. The shallowest zone begins at the base of the shoreline cliff, ranges in depth from 2.5 to 8 meters, and has a bottom cover consisting mainly of irregularly shaped basaltic boulders; Pocillopora meandrina dominates coral cover in this zone. This species appears to be the first to colonize new substrata and persists in large numbers only in the near-shore boulder zone where mechanical stress from wave action is great enough to restrict the growth forms of more competitive species. Due to this high wave stress, the P. meandrina bolder zone appears to be in an early successional stage with low coral cover and dominance and relatively hiqh species diversity. Moving into deeper water the Porites lobata reef building zone ranges in depth from 6 to 14 meters and is characterized by a gently sloping solid basalt and limestone bottom. Porites lobata dominates coral cover by growing in massive lobed and encrusting colonies. While succession seems to be in an advanced stage, monopolization of available space does not appear to be complete enough to exclude a variety of less competitive species, resulting in relatively high species diversities. The third zone occurs on the reef slope and ranges in depth from 14 to 30 meters. Solid substrata is scarce and succession may be a late stage due to domination of bottom cover by thickets of Porites compressa. Most of the other species that persist in this zone avoid competitive interactions by growing above the level of P. compressa. Storm wave stress is most devastating to corals in this zone, and breakage of living colonies seems to increase diversity by reducing P. compressa dominance. Transport of living coral fragments appears to extend zonal boundaries and create new colonies. Extensive "rubble channels" occur in this zone, and these channels may get progressively larger due to churning of rubble fragments with each successive storm. The Porites lobata rubble zone occurs below the deep border of the P. compressa thickets and extends to approximately 50 meters, the depth at which coraIs cease to appear. Substrata consists mostly of fine sand and a variety of small encrusting corals are found growing on scattered rubble fragments. Specialized species with narrow physiological tolerances limited to this zone also increase species diversity. While maximum size of corals may be reduced in this zone due to low light intensity, lack of solid substrata probably determines the lower depth limit of coral occurance. Sand and rubble that is carried downslope during storms cause this zone to be physically unstable and succession appears to be constantly interrupted at early stages. This is in contrast to other deep reef areas, such as off Maui and the Red Sea, where substrata is solid to the depth limit of coral growth. These communities appear to be highly stable and diverse, and in late or climax stages. The depauperate nature of Hawaiian coral fauna is probably due to fairly rigorous environmental conditions in combination with difficulties in larval transport from coral evolutionary centers in the western Pacific. However, reef areas off Kona are relatively rich for Hawaii due to complete protection from tradewind generated seas, partial protection from long period north swells, and the steep nearshore slopes that extend below wavebase.
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    An Annual Cycle of Phytoplankton Populations in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu
    (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1972-05) Murphy, Carol Menge
    The present study, planned as a quantitative investigation of the phytoplankton of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, over a period of one year, was undertaken to supplement present knowledge of seasonal, distributional, floristic, and ecological features of the phytoplankton in Kaneohe Bay. The objectives of this study were: 1. To identify and enumerate phytoplankton collected at selected stations at re~ular intervals over a period of one year 2. To attempt to determine the factors that control variations in the qualitative and quantitative makeup of the phytoplankton 3. To relate the quantitative data obtained in this study with other ecological data obtained by other investigators in a concurrent study.