Cyber Systems: Their Science, Engineering, and Security

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    Multiple transport protocols in an adaptive RPC-based framework
    ( 2022-01-04) Brandão, Daniel ; Rosa, Nelson
    The growing demand for distributed systems running in many environments and built atop heterogeneous transport protocols is apparent. However, existing middleware solutions commonly are built atop a unique protocol like TCP. This paper extends an existing framework for building middleware systems by adding several communications protocols. The proposed extensions allow developers to implement a middleware using distinct communication protocols (e.g., UDP, HTTP) or even replace them at runtime. An experimental evaluation was conducted (1) to show the impact of the new extensions on the application's performance and (2) to compare the performance of the proposed extensions with existing commercial middleware systems.
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    Improving the Expected Performance of Self-Organization in a Collective Adaptive System of Drones using Stochastic Multiplayer Games
    ( 2022-01-04) Riley, Ian ; Mckinney, Brett ; Gamble, Rose
    The Internet-of-Things (IoT) domain will be one of the most important domains of research in the coming decades. Paradigms continue to emerge that can employ self-organization to capitalize on the sheer number and variety of devices in the market. In this paper, we combine the use of stochastic multiplayer games (SMGs) and negotiation within two collective adaptive systems of drones tasked with locating and surveilling intelligence caches. We assess the use of an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model that is trained on the SMG’s output. The SMG is augmented to incorporate the OLS model to evaluate integration configurations during negotiation. The augmented SMG is compared to the base SMG where drones always integrate. Our results show that the incorporation of the OLS model improves the expected performance of the drones while significantly reducing the number of failed surveillance tasks which result in the loss of drones.
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    HoneyTree: Making Honeywords Sweeter
    ( 2022-01-04) Das, Kuntal ; Jafarian, Jafar Haadi ; Gethner, Ellen ; Dincelli, Ersin ; Bekman, Thomas
    Cyber deception is an area of cybersecurity based on building detection systems and verification models using decoys or controlled misinformation to confuse or misdirect the adversaries into revealing their presence and/or intentions. In the era of online services where our data is usually protected on the cloud relying on a secret key, even the most secure cyber systems can get compromised, losing highly confidential data to the attackers, including hashed passwords that can be cracked offline. Prior work has been done in carefully placing traps in the systems to detect intrusion activities. The Honeywords project by Juels and Rivest is the most straightforward and successful technique in detecting and deterring offline-password brute force by placing multiple plausible decoy passwords together along with the real password. In this paper, we enhance this approach and combine it with the concept of Merkle tree to build a new model called HoneyTree. Our model achieves twice the level of security as the Honeywords project at the same storage cost. We perform a detailed comparison of our approach to the original Honeywords project and analyze its pros and cons.
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    Hierarchical Control for Self-adaptive IoT Systems: A Constraint Programming-Based Adaptation Approach
    ( 2022-01-04) Tourchi Moghaddam, Mahyar ; Rutten, Eric ; Giraud, Guillaume
    The self-adaptation control of Internet of Things (IoT) systems ought to tackle uncertainties in the dynamic environment (application level), as well as the dynamic computation infrastructure (architecture level). While the control of those two levels is generally separated, they should coordinate to guarantee functionality and quality. This paper proposes a conceptual model for the separation of concerns in controlling the environment and infrastructure events. The approach is applied on a real case: Melle-Longchamp area's smart power transmission network (in France). A hierarchical architecture with a control mechanism formalized with constraint programming (CP) is modeled. The control system assesses the reconfigurations that enhance the quality of service (QoS) while considering the internal and external limitations. The CP considers the desired environment control modes and assesses their feasibility by computing the response time and availability using a Netflow algorithm. The outcomes of this research supported design decisions and provided architectural reconfiguration solutions to the French Power Transmission Company (RTE).
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    Criteria and Analysis for Human-Centered Browser Fingerprinting Countermeasures
    ( 2022-01-04) Andalibi, Vafa ; Sadeqi Azer, Erfan ; Camp, L. Jean
    Browser fingerprinting is a surveillance technique that uses browser and device attributes to track visitors across the web. Defeating fingerprinting requires blocking attribute information or spoofing attributes, which can result in loss of functionality. To address the challenge of escaping surveillance while obtaining functionality, we identify six design criteria for an ideal spoofing system. We present three fingerprint generation algorithms as well as a baseline algorithm that simply samples a dataset of fingerprints. For each algorithm, we identify trade-offs among the criteria: distinguishability from a non-spoofed fingerprint, uniqueness, size of the anonymity set, efficient generation, loss of web functionality, and whether or not the algorithm protects the confidentiality of the underlying dataset. We report on a series of experiments illustrating that the use of our partially-dependent algorithm for spoofing fingerprints will avoid detection by Machine Learning approaches to surveillance.