Distributed, Renewable, and Mobile Resources

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    An Initial Analysis of the Impact of Future Climate Change on the Efficiency and Reliability of Solar, Wind and Hydro Energy Sources
    ( 2023-01-03) Carreras, Benjamin ; Newman, David ; Bhatt, U. S. ; Reynolds, Jose-Miguel ; Collet, P. ; Gomila, D.
    Climate change will impact our electric power system, affecting both the load and generation and thereby the grid reliability. Here we investigate one part of these impacts, the effect of future climate change on the supply of renewable energy. Analyzing model output data through 2100, climate change is found to impact both the total supply available and its variability. This impact is however found to vary significantly with location. Here we focus on and compare a few disparate locations, Palma de Mallorca in the Balearic Islands, Cordova Alaska, McAllen TX and Oroville CA. Using developed metrics, this analysis applies a developed process to evaluate the changing needs for energy storage as well as the ability to evaluate the impact on grid reliability from both penetration of increasing renewable resources and changes in the variability of the resource on both transmission grids and microgrids in order to guide possible mitigation paths.
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    Capacity usage determination of a Capacitor-less D-STATCOM considering Power System Uncertainties
    ( 2023-01-03) Peerzada, Aaqib ; Begovic, Miroslav M. ; Rohouma, Wesam ; Balog, Robert
    The increasing adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs), particularly solar generation and the use of unconventional loads such as plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs), has a profound impact on the planning and operation of electric distribution systems. In particular, PHEV charging introduces stochastic peaks in energy consumption, while solar generation is fraught with variability during intermittent clouds. The stochastic nature of such DERs renders the operation of mechanical assets such as on-load tap changers and switched capacitor banks ineffective. A possible solution to mitigate the undesirable effects of DERs is using solid-state-based devices such as a distribution static synchronous compensator (D-STATCOM). This paper examines the capacity usage of a capacitor-less D-STATCOM in distribution systems while considering the uncertainties associated with using the aforementioned DERs. We propose a Monte Carlo simulation to study the capacity usage problem with DER inputs sampled from the proposed underlying distributions.
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    Competitive DER Aggregation for Participation in Wholesale Markets
    ( 2023-01-03) Chen, Cong ; Alahmed, Ahmed ; Mount, Timothy ; Tong, Lang
    The problem of the large-scale aggregation of behind-the-meter demand and generation resources by a distributed-energy-resource aggregator (DERA) is considered. As a wholesale market participant, a DERA maximizes its profit while providing competitive services to its customers with higher consumer/prosumer surpluses than those offered by the distribution utilities or community choice aggregations. A constrained profit maximization program for aggregating behind-the-meter generation and consumption resources is formulated, from which payment functions for the behind-the-meter consumptions and generations are derived. Also obtained are DERA’s bid and offer curves for its participation in the wholesale energy market.
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    A Spatiotemporal Analysis of New York State Grid Transition under the CLCPA Energy Strategy
    ( 2023-01-03) Liu, Mengwei ; Doering, Kenji ; Gupta, Amandeep ; Anderson, C. Lindsay
    To decarbonize the energy sector, clean energy plans with a tremendous quantity of renewable energy integration are emerging globally. New York State (NYS) has one of the most ambitious targets to realize carbon-neutrality by 2040. To investigate the feasibility of this plan, the starting point of the plan is analyzed on a modified representation of the NYS power grid. Historical data for 2019 is used to model the spatiotemporal co-variability of load and virtual renewable outputs at hourly intervals. Optimal power flow analysis is simulated on daily basis for the full year to examine the performance of the system from annual to hourly levels. Results identify bottlenecks to using renewable energy efficiently and reliably with an emphasis on storage units, providing system operators, policymakers, and stakeholders with a practical research foundation.
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    Decentralized Voltage Control with Peer-to-peer Energy Trading in a Distribution Network
    ( 2023-01-03) Feng, Chen ; Chen, Yihsu ; Liu, Andrew Lu
    Utilizing distributed renewable and energy storage resources via peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading has long been touted as a solution to improve energy system’s resilience and sustainability. Consumers and prosumers (those who have energy generation resources), however, do not have expertise to engage in repeated P2P trading, and the zero-marginal costs of renewables present challenges in determining fair market prices. To address these issues, we propose a multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) framework to help automate consumers’ bidding and management of their solar PV and energy storage resources, under a specific P2P clearing mechanism that utilizes the so-called supply-demand ratio. In addition, we show how the MARL framework can integrate physical network constraints to realize decentralized voltage control, hence ensuring physical feasibility of the P2P energy trading and paving ways for real-world implementations.
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    Resilient Operational Planning for Microgrids Against Extreme Events
    ( 2023-01-03) Zhao, Cunzhi ; Silva-Rodriguez, Jesus ; Li, Xingpeng
    This paper proposes a novel resilience index, a microgrid survivability rate (SR) under extreme events, and then proposes a novel Resilient Operational Planning (ROP) algorithm to maximize the proposed resilience index SR. The proposed ROP algorithm can incorporate predetermined inverter failure probabilities and generate multiple scenarios accordingly to optimize resilient operations during an extreme event. The implemented ROP algorithm consists of two main steps: (i) optimization of resilient operational planning, and (ii) preventive resilience enhancement if minimum SR is not met per the analysis in step 1. A typical microgrid (MG) is studied to compare the proposed ROP algorithm against a traditional microgrid energy management (MEM) model. Results indicate that an enhanced resilience operation is achieved by the ROP algorithm, which is demonstrated by the quantification of resilience via the SR. Moreover, the proposed ROP algorithm is able to obtain a greater SR overall compared to that achieved by the traditional MEM, and this benefit of using the proposed ROP increases as the inverter failure probabilities increase.
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    Power Solitons in Inverter-based Electric Energy Systems: Observation, Analysis and Implications
    ( 2023-01-03) Jiang, John
    The discovery of an unfamiliar class of nonlinear energy waves in electric energy systems with dominating coupled inverter-based energy resources has been reported in a recent research project. Whenever there are slight but persistent differences among the reference signals used by inverters in pulse-width modulation, i.e., a weak group modulation instability condition, the unfamiliar energy waves appear, which contain not only the familiar frequency components present in electric power systems but also self-organized components in the ultra-high frequency region of the energy spectrum. These components are found to be exploding solitary waves with concentrated energy masses, hence we call them power solitons. This paper explains the work of the discovery reported, and the implications of the presence of power solitons for grid integration of inverter-based resources and power system protection.
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    Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Formulated as Quadratic OPF and Solved via CS-SLP
    ( 2023-01-03) Meliopoulos, A. P. Sakis ; Ilunga, Gad Monga ; Cokkinides, George
    Increased penetration of inverter interfaced renewable energy resources creates challenges and opportunities for reactive power management in the modern electricity grid. Because of the multiplicity of new resources, new computational tools and optimization models are needed in formulating and solving the Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem (ORPD). In this paper, we propose (1) an object-oriented ORPD formulation based on high-fidelity modeling of each device in the network, especially those with VAR/V control capability and (2) a two-step Convex Solution-Sequential Linear Programming algorithm. The proposed method introduces two innovations: (a) high fidelity quadratized models of each component of the power system with emphasis on those components that have VAR/V control capability; and (b) an object oriented convexification of the resulting quadratic OPF problem; the solution is obtained by first solving the convex problem using public solvers for convex problems and them removing the relaxation and solving the original OPF using SLP, starting from the solution of the relaxed (convex) problem.
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    Quantitative Analysis on Time-series Nodal Voltages in Linear-time Intervals
    ( 2023-01-03) Wang, Zongjie
    The power flow problem is fundamental to all aspects of modeling, analysis, operation, and control of transmission and distribution systems. In a nutshell, it amounts to solving for the nodal voltages in the nonlinear active- and reactive power balance equations that characterize the steady-states of AC electric networks. The traditional power flow algorithm is focused on the steady operational state under a single snapshot and calculates the corresponding voltage and power distributions for given nodal power injections and network topology. To better capture the temporal characteristics of power injections and system variables with high accuracy, a linear-time interval regarding nodal power injections is first defined in this paper, and the norms of nodal voltage derivatives are further analyzed, which is leveraged for simplifying the complexity of solving non-linear dynamic time-varying problems. The voltage monotonicity property has been guaranteed under the proposed linear-time interval. Simulation case studies on IEEE 5-bus and modified 118-bus systems have demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.