Ngekar Utatn Raat Kite: A Look into Cartographic Encounters in Counter-Mapping Exercises in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Pramono, Albertus Hadi
Murton, Brian
Geography and Environment
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[Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [May 2013]
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Counter-mapping is both a social movement and method that local communities employ to assert their claims over lands and waters by producing standardized cartographic maps. In this dissertation I attempt to explore the encounters between scientific cartography and indigenous spatial knowledge to reveal the cartographic encounters within counter-mapping using the concepts of spatial literacies and geographic translation. The former is a means to emphasize the existence of diverse spatial knowledges, while the latter is to reveal the centrality of human agency in mapping endeavors. Based on a case study of PPSDAK Pancur Kasih, an indigenous Dayak organization, in carrying out mapping exercises in West Kalimantan (a province in the western part of Indonesian Borneo), I argue for a contestation of concepts, values, and meanings in map making. To do so I look into the discourse and Discourse (Gee 1996) of the activists and their trajectories over the Discourse. I particularly focus on the spatial knowledge of the Maap people (an indigenous Dayak group in the province) and how it relates and is affected by scientific cartography in an counter-mapping exercise the people had. Trajectories of counter-mapping movement in Indonesia show a mixture of different discourses and its option to use. The movement in in West Kalimantan has the same features but with an additional Discourse of Dayakness that has led to the development of a Discourse of counter-mapping. The conceptual understanding and the practices of counter-mapping among the activists of counter-mapping show this distinctive Discourse. The spatial knowledge of Maap people is largely based on their movements within the space, which can be considered as performance cartography (Woodward & Lewis 1998). The activists-cum-surveyors themselves know and even grew up with this knowledge. However the option to employ scientific tools gives a very small room for the indigenous knowledge to appear in the final maps. The translation of this indigenous knowledge into standardized cartographic maps shows the incompatibility of both knowledge systems and how it affects the spatial concepts and practices, particularly those related to boundary. This is another form of cartographic encounter, in which indigenous knowledges interact with cartographic knowledge and are translated by the latter's proponents to produce maps. As a result the Discourse of counter-mapping in West Kalimantan can be considered as a hybrid between indigenous Dayak Discourses and Discourse of dominant modern society.
PhD University of Hawaii at Manoa 2013
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 209–246).
counter-mapping, critical cartography, spatial literacy, Indonesia, Maap Spatial knowledge, geographic translation, community perceptions on counter-mapping, Pacific Rim studies, cartographic encounter, Dayak, West Kalimantan
xix, 246 leaves
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Theses for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (University of Hawaii at Manoa). Geography.
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