Horizons, Volume 4

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
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    Front and Back Cover
    ( 2019-09-20)
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    Editor's Foreword and Cover Art Statement
    ( 2019-09-20) Scally, Jayme
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    Uncle Sam’s Language School: How American Hegemony and Imperialism Altered Learning of Japanese and Hawaiian Language in Hawaiʻi
    ( 2019-09-20) Manabe, Kacie Y.
    Since the introduction of American culture, political systems, and educational institutions to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, languages other than English have often deteriorated or faced the threat of erasure from imperialist and colonialist structures. The United States’ role in the erasure of Japanese and Hawaiian languages had varying effects from martial law orders to an outright legal ban in educational institutions. In this paper, I will examine the history behind (attempted) erasure of Japanese and Hawaiian language and how each had its own path to revitalization. I will also examine how Asian settler colonialism allowed Japanese to become a dominant language in education and the commodification of Hawaiian language into Japanese for tourism-related purposes. This inquiry also examines how Hawaiian language revitalization movements began and discusses the role of Hawaiian immersion schools in raising native speaker percentages. Hawaiian language revitalization also shows how revival efforts succeeded in the middle of the Hawaiian Renaissance and how Asian settler colonialism continues to constrain efforts for the decolonization of education in Hawaiʻi.
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    Guns, Art, and Empathy: How Filipinos Opposed the Japanese Occupation (1942–1945)
    ( 2019-09-20) Bonilla, Jeremiah L.
    As Japan occupied the Philippines from 1942 to 1945, anti-Japanese sentiment among Filipino civilians intensified, especially as the brutal Japanese soldiers policed and coerced civilians into cooperating with their new ruler. The Japanese asserted their power through public atrocities directed toward civilians and prisoners, as well as through the implementation of mass censorship to ease the dissemination of propaganda, promote Asiatic identity and association, and prevent the spread of Western ideas. In this paper, I argue that Filipino civilians found ways of expressing opposition to the Japanese during the occupation period: by (1) joining and participating in the activities of the Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon (People’s Anti-Japanese Liberation Army) or Hukbalahap, (2) conveying symbolic messages of opposition through various forms of artistic expression, and (3) empathetically providing sustenance and support to American soldiers. I draw on examples from primary and secondary sources in my analysis. These three forms of opposition highlight the creativity and solidarity of the Filipino civilians, as well as the bitterness they felt toward their occupier during this period of restriction, chaos, and uncertainty.
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    “The Great Work Begins”: The Reception and Relevance of Tony Kushner’s Angels in America in a Millennial World
    ( 2019-09-20) Sprott, Zoë E.
    When it was first performed in 1991, Tony Kushner’s play about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 1980s America, Angels in America, was clearly relevant and, because of this, successful. Nearly three decades later, 2017 saw a resurgence of Angels in America, raising an important question: why now? This paper seeks to answer this question (previously posed by David Savran in 1995) through the dual lenses of close reading and reception theory, studying the evolution of productions over time and examining the extended lifetime of Kushner’s characters and messages. The renewed relevance of Angels in America is the result of a return to a sociopolitical and environmental landscape that is similar to that of the 1980s. Furthermore, the play survives not only because of such similarities, but because it is written for turbulent periods of change and preaches a message of hope and perseverance; for this reason, it will continue to thrive long past this moment in time.
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    ( 2019-09-20) Murashige, Kelly
    Written for Laurel Fantauzzo’s “Form and Theory of Fiction” class, this short story focuses on the concept of rejection. The narrator, Alyssa, has received bad news and arrives home knowing that she will have to tell her mother. Their relationship has grown strained over the years. Alyssa worries that it may be too late to repair it. Staggering under the weight of failure, Alyssa starts to understand the way that she rejected and was rejected by others, with her mother by her side.
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    Special Educational Needs for Gifted Students: A Case Study about Melinda
    ( 2019-09-20) Brown, Jennifer E.
    A rhythmic and rhyming poem that highlights characteristics through which giftedness may be identified, how latent features of gifted children may be recognize, and what teachers can do to help all kids discover and expand their unique abilities and interests as much as their self-determination.
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    ( 2019-09-20) Nakanishi-Shankles, Ashley K.
    Originally an adaptation poem based on “The Big Bad Wolf”, I’ve used this metaphor to discuss and explore rape culture by examining the female body through the lens of a “house”. Meant to discuss the tragedies revolving intergenerational rape culture, this poem contains what could trigger memories of sexual assault in some readers. Please be advised.
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    Using Carbon and Nitrogen Footprints to Advance UHM Sustainability
    ( 2019-09-20) Cristobal, Jillian
    Human activities have greatly altered the planet’s nitrogen and carbon cycles. Combustion of fossil fuels and land use changes that reduce ecosystem carbon stocks have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, resulting in climate change. The invention of chemical fixation of inert dinitrogen (N2) has increased all other forms of reactive nitrogen in the environment. While essential to life, excessive reactive nitrogen cascades through the land, air, and water and contributes to multiple consequences for environmental and human health. Many universities and colleges have sustainability goals aimed at reducing their contribution to carbon and nitrogen pollution. However, making informed decisions on which actions to take is a challenge and evaluating the impact of those actions remains a challenge for institutional sustainability. We conducted the first nitrogen and carbon footprint assessment for the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (UHM) to quantify the amount of reactive nitrogen and carbon dioxide released into the environment as a result of its activities. Purchased electricity and food were the largest contributors of UHM’s nitrogen footprint, and purchased electricity and commuting transportation contributed most to the carbon footprint. We calculated scenarios within each sector to project the impact of potential actions on UHM’s carbon and nitrogen footprint, and we identified opportunities to refine data collection and analysis for future footprint assessments. This research provides a comprehensive baseline of UHM’s carbon and nitrogen footprint, which can be used to support and guide the university’s sustainability goals.
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    Updating Historical Shoreline Change Rates of North Kāʻanapali, Honokōwai, and Kahana, West Maui
    ( 2019-09-20) Tran, Cuong
    Tracking shoreline movement across the main Hawaiian Islands provides empirical data to assist in the development of better coastal management practices. We, the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Coastal Geology Group, use empirical data to calculate shoreline change rates on the islands of Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, and Maui. In this study, 2015 raw satellite imagery, provided by World View 3, was used to update the historical shoreline database of North Kāʻanapali, Honokōwai, and Kahana, West Maui. We calculated 2015 shoreline change rates and analyzed differences compared to an earlier database from 2007. The satellite imagery we used was orthorectified using ArcGIS and PCI Geomatica Inc., the low water mark and coastal vegetation line were digitized, and shoreline position locations were measured from transects spaced 20 meters alongshore. These locations were modeled using linear regression to identify long-term rates of change at each transect. Including the 2015 shoreline, the data revealed that 77% of all transects were erosional, compared to 73% in 2007. With regard to beach loss, the 2007 dataset experienced a loss of 80 meters whereas the 2015 dataset showed a loss of 920 meters. The expansion of eroding shoreline over the period 2007 to 2015 is consistent with the expected influence of rising sea levels and continued coastal hardening. However, a full analysis that would have identified whether the changes were due to short-term variability or a valid statistical trend was not conducted.