Horizons, Volume 4

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    Editor's Foreword and Cover Art Statement
    ( 2019-09-20) Scally, Jayme
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    Uncle Sam’s Language School: How American Hegemony and Imperialism Altered Learning of Japanese and Hawaiian Language in Hawaiʻi
    ( 2019-09-20) Manabe, Kacie Y.
    Since the introduction of American culture, political systems, and educational institutions to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, languages other than English have often deteriorated or faced the threat of erasure from imperialist and colonialist structures. The United States’ role in the erasure of Japanese and Hawaiian languages had varying effects from martial law orders to an outright legal ban in educational institutions. In this paper, I will examine the history behind (attempted) erasure of Japanese and Hawaiian language and how each had its own path to revitalization. I will also examine how Asian settler colonialism allowed Japanese to become a dominant language in education and the commodification of Hawaiian language into Japanese for tourism-related purposes. This inquiry also examines how Hawaiian language revitalization movements began and discusses the role of Hawaiian immersion schools in raising native speaker percentages. Hawaiian language revitalization also shows how revival efforts succeeded in the middle of the Hawaiian Renaissance and how Asian settler colonialism continues to constrain efforts for the decolonization of education in Hawaiʻi.
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    Guns, Art, and Empathy: How Filipinos Opposed the Japanese Occupation (1942–1945)
    ( 2019-09-20) Bonilla, Jeremiah L.
    As Japan occupied the Philippines from 1942 to 1945, anti-Japanese sentiment among Filipino civilians intensified, especially as the brutal Japanese soldiers policed and coerced civilians into cooperating with their new ruler. The Japanese asserted their power through public atrocities directed toward civilians and prisoners, as well as through the implementation of mass censorship to ease the dissemination of propaganda, promote Asiatic identity and association, and prevent the spread of Western ideas. In this paper, I argue that Filipino civilians found ways of expressing opposition to the Japanese during the occupation period: by (1) joining and participating in the activities of the Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon (People’s Anti-Japanese Liberation Army) or Hukbalahap, (2) conveying symbolic messages of opposition through various forms of artistic expression, and (3) empathetically providing sustenance and support to American soldiers. I draw on examples from primary and secondary sources in my analysis. These three forms of opposition highlight the creativity and solidarity of the Filipino civilians, as well as the bitterness they felt toward their occupier during this period of restriction, chaos, and uncertainty.
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    “The Great Work Begins”: The Reception and Relevance of Tony Kushner’s Angels in America in a Millennial World
    ( 2019-09-20) Sprott, Zoë E.
    When it was first performed in 1991, Tony Kushner’s play about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 1980s America, Angels in America, was clearly relevant and, because of this, successful. Nearly three decades later, 2017 saw a resurgence of Angels in America, raising an important question: why now? This paper seeks to answer this question (previously posed by David Savran in 1995) through the dual lenses of close reading and reception theory, studying the evolution of productions over time and examining the extended lifetime of Kushner’s characters and messages. The renewed relevance of Angels in America is the result of a return to a sociopolitical and environmental landscape that is similar to that of the 1980s. Furthermore, the play survives not only because of such similarities, but because it is written for turbulent periods of change and preaches a message of hope and perseverance; for this reason, it will continue to thrive long past this moment in time.
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    Palm
    ( 2019-09-20) Murashige, Kelly
    Written for Laurel Fantauzzo’s “Form and Theory of Fiction” class, this short story focuses on the concept of rejection. The narrator, Alyssa, has received bad news and arrives home knowing that she will have to tell her mother. Their relationship has grown strained over the years. Alyssa worries that it may be too late to repair it. Staggering under the weight of failure, Alyssa starts to understand the way that she rejected and was rejected by others, with her mother by her side.