M.S. - Kinesiology and Leisure Science

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    Age and sex differences in simulated collision avoidance driving
    ( 2006) Ryan, Ann Marie
    The ability to avoid collisions is essential for survival. Diminished avoidance abilities among older adults and those under age 12 may account for the disproportionately high number of older individuals and children involved in pedestrian-vehicle collisions (Choueiri, E. M, Choueiri, G. M, Choueiri, B. M., 1993); (Kingma, J., 1994); (Mathey, F.J.,1983). The growing number of traffic-related fatalities underscores the need to attain a better understanding of collision avoidance response skill changes across the life span and the need to develop systems for screening and assessing individual collision avoidance skills. The primary objective of the parent research was to develop a battery of tests and to examine the relationships between sensory, attention, cognition and motor skills with collision avoidance ability. The degree of skill exhibited by an individual in avoiding automobile collisions in the simulator is expected to be a useful indicator of his/her ability to perform other related complex vehicle-maneuvering tasks such as those required for automobile operation. The purpose of this thesis project was to develop a simulated collision avoidance testing (SCAT) apparatus and procedure and conduct a pilot study to examine the SCAT system sensitivity to age and sex differences of the vehicle operator, particularly with respect to intra-task manipulations of visibility, event uncertainty, and type of evasive maneuver. One hundred and six healthy functional volunteers served as participants. These volunteers have 19 (6-19 years) participants in the young group; 43 (20-59 years) participants in the adult group, and 44 (60-74+ years) participants in the senior group. Five sets of tasks were performed: (1) Simulated Collision Avoidance Task with overall measures including crash frequency and crash severity;(2) Sensory Integrity tests (vision, hearing, and health questionnaires); (3) Information Processing Tasks including reaction time and movement time tests; (4)Tasks of Everyday Attention and Cognition (TEAC): Visual Elevator Test (attention switching), Trails B Test (visual search), Telephone Directory Search Test (visual search), and Telephone Number Dialing Test (short-term memory); and (5) Movement Control Tasks: Grip Strength Test (strength), Balance Test (balance), Gross Motor (Fitts Tapping Test), Needle Threading Test (fine motor skill), Bow Tying Test (fine motor skill), and Tweezer Transfer Test (fine motor skill). The total time per test session was 90-120 minutes. Only the simulator results are presented in this thesis. Overall results for the SCAT showed significant differences in crash frequency ratio and crash severity as a function of age, sex, uncertainty and maneuver. Visibility was only marginally significant. The effects of age depended on level of task such that the senior group had a significantly higher crash frequency and severity than the other age groups for uncertain scenarios, while differences between other age groups were not significantly different There was an interaction of sex and maneuver in crash severity such that males performed worse than females. Females varied very little across maneuvers while males had progressively more fatal crashes from left to right to stop maneuvers. The stop maneuver had a significantly greater crash frequency than the left or right maneuvers. The right and stop maneuvers had a higher crash severity than the left maneuver for uncertain scenarios. Beneficial outcomes of this research for Hawaii and the nation may include improved medical screening and assessment batteries to aid licensing agencies, rehabilitation facilities, physicians, driver education specialists, law enforcement officers, families of unfit drivers, and all drivers on the road in identifying drivers who, for whatever reason, are unfit to drive without assistance. This research helps identify when collision avoidance abilities (and cognitive and motor function) reach maximal development, when they begin to decline, and the possibility of compensatory measures for recognized deficiencies. These findings are especially relevant to the identification of older persons at risk of auto accidents. Given the sensitivity to age and/or disability demonstrated by SCAT, these tasks may hold potential for screening candidates for driver's license renewal and for impaired driver rehabilitation in virtual reality ... risk free to the real world traffic. SCAT may comprise useful test battery elements for testing and predicting collision avoidance ability of potential drivers and for assessing an individual's fitness to drive thereby reducing traffic fatalities and extending the number of years of safe driving for motorists.
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    The relationship between social environment and walking levels in older women in Hawaiʻi
    ( 2008) Nagira, Megumi
    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and perceptions of the environment by elderly women in Hawaii. Participants (n=l44) were surveyed to explore what elderly women do for physical activity, how much activity they perform in a week, if their background affects their physical activity and if their perception of the physical environment affects their level of activity. Results indicated that walking was the most frequent exercise to be reported with 61 % of the participants meeting the CDC's recommendation. Walking for transport was associated with distance to the community centers, means of transportation, and geographic barriers. Other findings include walking for leisure was associated with residential density while leisure time physical activity was related to living situation. Gardening was related to lack of parking and cul-de-sacs. Age was related to less activity-friendly environments, less education, and living situation.
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    The relationship between heart rate variability, self-perception, exercise, mood, and sleep indicies in collegiate women's track and field during a competitive season
    ( 2008) Leonhardt, Lorita P.A
    This research examined in-season changes in physiological and psychological measures, and related them to training over time (4-months) in women's track and field during a competitive collegiate season. Fifteen female athletes between the ages of 18 and 24 years old participated. Each participant completed the Exercise Orientation Questionnaire (EOQ), where four questions were derived from the Self-Loathing Subsca1e (SLSS) questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) Questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) Standard Form Questionnaire, and heart rate variability (HRV) testing protocols during each of their four testing sessions. Testing sessions included the application of a tilt table to measure the LFIHF ratio in female track and field athletes. A developmental and quasi-experimental research design with repeated measures was employed in this study. Data collection of the LFIHF ratio occurred across three plains (0 degrees, 70 degrees, and 0 degrees). The test results revealed that there were no significant differences in the following: (1) LFIHF ratio over the four trials due to the high amount of in-season training that they received over a period of 4-months; (2) comparison to the POMS and SLSS questionnaires as a covariate; and (3) comparing the ESS questionnaire as a covariate. In conclusion, the physiological stress from the tilt table testing did not seem to affect the participant's ability to adapt to physiological stress over the four trials, however, it can be noted that when using the ESS questionnaire as a covariate, data appear to be approaching significance.
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    Validation of the human activity profile in the HIV-Positive population using indirect calorimetry
    ( 2008) Barnett, Alexis T.
    Objective(s): To determine if the HAP is a valid measure of physical activity level for the HIV-Positive population. Design: Validation using VO2max as the "gold standard" to compare HAP scores resulting from the Maximal Activity Score (MAS) and the Adjusted Activity Score (AAS). Setting: Clinical laboratory Participants: Twenty-six HN-positive participants (23 male, 3 female; age 45.96±9.28 years) receiving HAART. Intervention: Participants completed the HAP and the exercise test on the same day. Maximal oxygen uptake was determined using standard indirect calorimetry techniques. Responses to the HAP resulted in two scores: the maximal activity score (MAS: maximal activity that is still being performed) and the adjusted activity score (AAS: MAS minus the number of activities that the subject can no longer perform). Correlations between AAS, MAS and VO2 max were generated. Main Outcome: MAS, AAS, and VO2max values. VO2max values were assessed using indirect Calorimetry. Results: Mean VO2max was 37.73 ± 6.95 ml O2kg-lmin-l. The mean MAS and AAS scores were 86.5 ± 7.6 and 75.7 ± 19.2, respectively. The VO2max was poorly correlated with MAS and AAS at p =0.31 and p =0.32, respectively. The poor correlations were likely due to the fact that the mean VO2max of the subjects in the present study exceeded 10 METS, the design limitations of the HAP. Conclusions: Based on the validation criteria used in the present study, the HAP is not a valid indicator of physical activity capacity for HIV -positive patients on HAART. Further study is needed to find a more accurate instrument to estimate physical activity capacity for this population.
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    Anaerobic capacity via a maximal run test
    ( 2007) Keen, Shannon A.K
    Quantifying anaerobic power in runners while running is problematic compared to the determination of aerobic capacity. Aerobic capacity is the maximal amount of oxygen consumed during maximal exertion and is assessed primarily by open circuit indirect calorimetry yielding data such as VO2 max, ventilation, and heart rate (Crouter et al., 2001; Nioka et al., 1998). Anaerobic capacity is the maximum amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated through anaerobic energy systems (Green et al., 1993). Measurements of the contributions of these energy systems during activity can determine the metabolic requirements for exercise performance and the design of sport specific training regimens. Training results in increased A TP production,• which results in more efficient aerobic and anaerobic work for longer periods of time with less muscular fatigue (Nevill et al., 1989; Stathis et al., 1994; Thorstensson et al., 1976; Thorstensson et al., 1975). Quantification of anaerobic capacity requires exhaustive exercise performed at an optimal resistance resulting in a suitable duration (Green et al., 1993; Vandewalle et al., 1987). This type of high intensity activity results in an increase in blood lactate concentrations (Nummela, Alberts et al., 1996; Nummela, Mero et al., 1996). Peak blood lactate concentrations occur approximately seven minutes post exercise (Fujitsuka et al., 1982). Because of the relationship between peak blood lactate accumulation and anaerobic capacity, blood lactate concentration has been reported to be a reliable indication of anaerobic power in both laboratory and field settings. (Fujitsuka et al., 1982; Gratas-Delamarche et al., 1994; Green et al., 1993; Lacour et al., 1990; Ohkuwa et al., 1984; Vandewalle et al., 1987). Anaerobic testing can be divided into two categories: laboratory testing and field testing. Field tests include shuttle runs, sprints, and vertical jumps. Laboratory testing consists of cycle ergometer and treadmill tests. Field tests such as the vertical jump and Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test have been criticized due to the limited duration and low intensity (Vandewalle et al., 1987). However, sprints of various distances ranging from 100 - 400m have been shown to be good predictors of anaerobic capacity (Patton et al., 1987; Scott et al., 1991; Shaver, 1975). Distances over 400m are more directly related to aerobic capacity rather than anaerobic capacity (Shaver, 1975). Blood lactate values correlate with mean velocity for may runners (Ohkuwa et al., 1984), and for females (Lacour et al., 1990) in distances under 40Om. Laboratory sprint tests on treadmills measure anaerobic capacity and protocols such as peak power obtained in the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (MART) have been found to correlate moderately with .the Wingate Anaerobic Test (r = 0.52) (Nummela, Alberts et al., 1996). Treadmill sprint tests determine anaerobic capacity by run time to exhaustion or by incremental increases in speed until subject cannot keep up with specified intensity for designated time period (Falk et al., 1996; Nummela, Alberts et al., 1996). The use of a treadmill for sprint tests allows the researcher easy control over factors such as speed and incline; however, controversy arises due to the inability to run at maximum speed, difficulty finding an optimal stride, and failure to attain maximal energy requirement (Frishberg, 1983; Schnabel et al., 1983). The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is a highly regarded measurement of anaerobic capacity and power. Measurements of peak power, absolute power, relative power and anaerobic fatigue have become the standard for measurement of anaerobic capacity. (Falk et al., 1996; Green et al., 1993; Murphy, 1986; Nummela, Alberts. et al., 1996; Sands et al., 2004; Weinstein et al., 1998) The WAnT has been accepted as an anaerobic test because of its intensity and duration characteristics as well as its simple and inexpensive protocol. The WAnT elicits high concentrations of blood lactate (Inbar, 1996) which has been found to be significantly correlated with mean power for females (r = 0.48 - 0.72) (Gratas-Delamarche et al., 1994; Weinstein et al., 1998). A disadvantage of the WAnT and other cycle ergometer tests is how the data are interpreted for trained individuals who are untrained in cycling. Results from a non-weight bearing anaerobic test are not easily transferable to the playing field where the athlete has to account for his/her own body weight (Sands et al., 2004) and should not be used as a predictor of performance in sport due to specificity of skills (Beckenholdt et al., 1983). Consequently, non-weight bearing cycle ergometer test results may not be indicative of sprint performance (Baker and Davies, 2002) or other weight bearing activities. A 200m sprint was found to correlate with the WAnT for peak power and mean power when related to body size (r = -0.54 and -0.82) (Patton et al., 1987). A 200m sprint takes approximately 25- 35 seconds, when completed as a maximum effort sprint (Hautier, 1994; Patton et al., 1987; Shaver, 1975). World record times for the 200m sprint are 19.32 sec. for males and 21.34 sec for females (Morrison, 2006). This distance provides a duration similar to that of the Wingate protocol; therefore, utilization of the 200m sprint might be an alternative to the WAnT. Thus, a 200m-field test may be a better indication of anaerobic capacity for athletes that have to complete swift bouts of anaerobic running in their sport. The Hawaii Anaerobic Run Test (HART) was introduced in a pilot study completed in the University of Hawaii performance lab. This test utilized a 200m sprint to determine anaerobic capacity in sprinters. The pilot study showed the HART to be a valid and reliable test of anaerobic performance (Smith, unpublished Master's Thesis, 2005). The purpose of this study was two-fold: determine the sensitivity of the HART for runners and cyclists when compared to the WAnT and to determine the relationship between velocity and momentum obtained in the HART test with power values obtained in the WAnT. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) there would be no differences between blood lactate accumulation for runners and cyclists regardless of test; and (2) there would be no differences between runners and cyclists in velocity and momentum collected during the HART or power values collected during the WAnT.
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    Determination of anaerobic performance via maximal sprint field test
    ( 2007) Harmon, Andrea S.
    The purpose of this study was to compare the specificity of the WAnT and a recently developed 200 meter sprint, Hawaii Anaerobic Run Test (HART). by evaluating the performance of seventy seven male and female runners and cyclists and untrained males and females on both tests. The HART protocol consisted of a five minute warm up followed by a 200 meter sprint on a track. The WAnT was performed in the laboratory using a cycle ergometer to perform a 30 second sprint against a weighted flywheel. Finger prick blood lactate samples were taken seven minutes after completion of each test. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were generated comparing power data from the WAnT with velocities and momentums from the HART. Strong correlations were found between peak and mean momentum and power (r=O.82. r=O.78. respectively). Data from this study suggest that the HART is a valid field test for evaluating anaerobic power during running.
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    Glenohumeral peak torques and strength ratios relationship with injury in adolescent female volleyball athletes
    ( 2007) Freemyer, Brett G.
    Context: Research of adolescent volleyball athletes' isokinetic strength is nonexistent. Objective: 1"0 evaluate the relationship between shoulder injuries, anthropometric characteristics, and shoulder internal and external rotation strength. Design: Multivariate analysis of variance and covariance design with two conditions: (1) skill level and (2) previous shoulder injury. Setting: Human Performance and Athletic Training Labs at the University of Hawai'i, Manoa. Subjects: 38 adolescent club volleyball athletes, 10-15 years of age (mean 13.02 +1- 1.60). Main Outcome Measures: Concentric and eccentric peak torque of the shoulder internal and external rotators on a Biodex System 3 Dynamometer at 60°s-1 Results: Older and more skilled athletes had significantly higher peak torque measurements in concentric and eccentric internal/external rotation compared with the athletes of the younger and lesser skill levels. No differences existed between the healthy and injured subjects in terms of peak torque produced. Strength ratios were not different across skill levels, however injured subjects produced significantly lower eccentric internal rotation/concentric external rotation (p ~ 0.02) than healthy subjects. Conclusions: Differences in the internal and external shoulder rotator strength ratios appear to be related to injury prevalence more than absolute strength. Shoulder dysfunction related to strength ratio deficits may also exist in adolescent volleyball athletes.
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    Reliability of hand held stopwatches during H.A.R.T. field testing
    ( 2007) Lundquist, Kelly M.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of split times obtained by band held stopwatches (HHS) compared to electronic timing (ET) during a 200-m sprint. Twenty-six timers were given instruction and practice until good agreement was achieved between ET and HHS. Two HHS timing methods were compared with ET: single-split timers (SST) and multiple-split timers (MST). Trained runners (8 males, 10 females) participated in this study. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the validity. Reliability was analyzed using Intraclass Correlation models. No differences were found between the five MST (p = 0.092). An ICC of 0.92 indicated high reliability. ET resulted in significantly faster times than MST or SST (F = 4.73,p = 0.009). High ICC values (ICC model (2, 3) = 0.96 and 0.99) indicated that the two HHS methods were reliable. It was concluded that ET should be the method of choice.
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    Effect of intermittent hypoxic exposure on heart rate variability in endurance trained athletes using autoregressive spectral analysis
    ( 2006) Martin, Vanessa R.
    Context: Spectral analysis of beat-to-beat fluctuations in heart rate (Heart Rate Variability (HRV)) provides an efficient, non-invasive assessment of autonomic function and cardiovascular adaptations. Changes in HRV may result from a number of different physiological factors including training level and acclimation to altitude. Objective: To investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) via CVACTM chamber on HRV in endurance trained athletes using autoregressive (AR) spectral analysis. Methods: Thirteen endurance trained subjects (four females; age 30.3 ± 8.9 years, nine males; age 30.1 ± 9.2 years) underwent an intermittent hypoxic conditioning protocol that involved increased exposure to altitude each week over eight weeks. Heart rate variability measures were taken in both supine and tilt positions pre and post altitude exposure to evaluate the acute effects, changes in acute effects over time, and chronic effects. Results: No significant differences were found in HRV using the AR spectral analysis (p>0.01). No negative effects of IHE on HRV were found. Conclusions: Intermittent hypoxic exposure delivered via CVACTM had no effect on HRV in endurance trained athletes when analyzed by the AR spectral analysis.
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    Identifying disparities in physical activity and body mass index in an understudied group of adolescents
    ( 2006) Combs, Jan M.
    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to provide descriptive data on body mass index (BMI) and pedometer-determined physical activity in a sample of Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents. Methods: A multiethnic sample of adolescents, a total of 171 (78 boys and 93 girls), in grades seven and eight, wore sealed pedometers for 6-8 weekdays. The ethnic composition of the sample was 64% PI (Native Hawaiian, Part Native Hawaiian, and Samoan) and 36% Non-Pacific Islander (Filipino, Black, Japanese, Portuguese, White, American Indian, Hispanic, Chinese, Indo-Chinese, and other). BMI was determined from height and weight. Participants were classified as normal, at-risk, or overweight using CDC BMI-for- age growth charts to obtain percentile ranking. Greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of BMI for each age and sex group was used to classify overweight participants. Results: The total sample (N= 171) accumulated 10,663 ± 4,200 steps/day. Boys (12,360 ± 4,271) accumulated approximately 3,000 more steps/day than girls (9,241 ± 3,583) (p=.001) and 8th grade (11,623 ±4,280) accumulated approximately 1,800 more steps/day than 7th grade (9,800 ±3,953) (p=.01). PI (IO,649±4,377) and Non-PI (IO,689±3,89S) accumulated similar steps/day. No significant differences were found on BMI between sex and grades. There were also no significant ethnic differences in BMI, however, 33.4% of the PI adolescents were classified as overweight compared to 23% of the Non-PI adolescents. Conclusion: Boys and girls were less active than U.S. counterparts, with the exception of 8th grade boys. The overweight prevalence among PI adolescents (33%) was more than double the national average (15%). Clearly, interventions are needed to reduce the prevalence of overweight in this population.