M.A. - East Asian Languages and Literatures (Japanese)

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    Voiceless Victims: Narratives of Rape in Okinawan Fiction.
    ( 2017-08) Reidpath, Hilson G. ; East Asian Lang & Lit-Japanese
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    Poetic spirit and internal necessity : an interpretation of the literature and artistic philosophy of Akutagawa Ryūnosuke, as understood through the writings of Wassily Kandinsky
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [December 2013], 2013-12) Wilder, Nicole Lea
    In the first section of "Bungeiteki na, amari ni bungeiteki na" ("Literary, all too Literary," 1927), Akutagawa Ryūnosuke briefly discusses two of the most influential painters of the early twentieth century, Paul Cézanne and Wassily Kandinsky. He uses these two artists as examples to help describe the concept of the 'hanashi' rashii hanashi no nai shōsetsu ("novel with no story-like story"), which he argues is the purest type of novel.1 Cézanne's paintings, he writes, rely more heavily on color than on dessin, or structure, and yet are full of life. Kandinsky goes a step further, as the only artist who manages to do away completely with the need for dessin, as seen in his Improvisations. Though the passage concerning Cézanne and Kandinsky is often cited in critical works that address "Bungeiteki" and the famous ronsō ("literary debate") with Tanizaki Jun'ichirō, of which it forms one side, the significance of this short section concerning dessin, and specifically the mention of Kandinsky, remains largely overlooked. By citing the works of the Post-Impressionist Cézanne and the Expressionist Kandinsky, Akutagawa indicates an extremely important path of influence that has yet to be fully explored in the critical literature surrounding his writing. Consideration of Akutagawa's lifelong engagement with the visual arts is essential to a complete understanding of his career.
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    Saibara : a study and linguistic analysis of the Heian period fūzoku song collection
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [May 2014], 2014-05) Scanlon-Canegata, James William
    Saibara is one of several fuzoku 'folk' collections preserved as part of the Heian period court music repertoire. The collection preserves 61 songs in its two earliest extant manuscripts, Nabeshimake-bon and Tenji-bon (12 c.). As a fuzoku collection, Saibara is frequently attributed to regionality and peripheral provinces outside the capital, especially Azuma (eastern provinces). The geographic distribution of the songs reconstructed from regions and place names mentioned throughout the collection are huddled in and around the capital Heiankyō , with the largest number of songs referring to locations in the Kinai and Tōkaidō and Tōsandō regions to the northeast. Speculation based on such historical evidence is both quantitatively and qualitatively limited. In a departure from traditional studies on the collection, using linguistic analysis, this study looks at Saibara in order to shed light on the origins and historical context of the songs--through the language recorded in the text. The primary goal of this study is to give a descriptive analysis of the language of the Saibara songs. There are several imperatives that drive the research undertaken here. To begin, Saibara is a drastically understudied text in Western literary and linguistic scholarship. This is despite the collection's potential merits as an early heterogeneous collection of Heian period literature with ties to texts and historical records from as early as the ninth century. The mysterious provenance of the songs has tantalized early and modern Japanese scholars, but conjecture has yet to give way to substantial theories regarding their origins and historical context. There has been something of a renaissance in serious philological work on Saibara recently, with new studies coming out of Japan that engage the collection as a pre-modern literary work, as opposed to collection of music lyrics (gagaku) (e.g. Fujiwara 2011, Motozuka Wataru 2012). This thesis systematically looks at the writing and language of the text and, based on comparative textual evidence, asserts that the songs recorded in Saibara likely predate the oldest extant manuscripts by at least a century--and further that there is strong evidence for an established transcription system for recording these and other songs from at least the mid-late Nara period. This study's analysis is centralized around the orthography, phonology, and morphology of the text in order to illuminate the language that underlies it. In doing this, a rough dating of the (language of the) text, a better understanding of its origins, as well as the transitional linguistic period of the mid-tenth and eleventh centuries can establish a basis for setting the work within a historical context on its own merits. Thus, this thesis can be divided into two sections: the first section gives a description of the history of the collection, including perspectives on the historical context and provenance of the songs (sections 1.1-1.3, chapter 3, 5, and 7). In this part I will also be looking at extant manuscripts and recensions, as well as giving an overview of previous scholarship. Chapter six is a comparative study of Saibara and the Man'yōshū, as well as intertextuality between the Kokinshū and Nihon shoki. Chapter eight looks at distinct features of the songs, specifically hayashi kotoba. The second section is a graphemic study of the writing and description of phonology and grammar of the text. In large part, this analysis is done vis-à-vis Old Japanese and Middle Japanese, which I have used as an anchor for my analysis. This study uses primarily the four oldest extant manuscripts, Nabeshimake-bon, Tenjibon, Jinchi yōroku and Sango yōroku, with special attention to those written in man'yōgana (Nabeshimake-bon, Tenji-bon). Several other manuscripts and early studies are also used as supplementary texts and contrast is provided when relevant. When available, original manuscript facsimiles were used and typescript copies were consulted.
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    Historicizing the hinmin : social discourse and fiction in turn-of-the-century Japan
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2014], 2014-08) Kimura, Tomoki
    Toward the end of 19th century, the term hinmin (貧民)--which generally refers to "the poor'" or "the needy," and which was almost interchangeably used with saimin (細民)--became prevalent in public discourse addressing "social problems," such as poverty, the slums, and prostitution. In a Yomiuri newspaper article published in April 4, 1890, titled "Ease and Privation" (Rakukyō to kukyō 楽境と苦境), the term hinmin appears in conjunction with another term shakai (society社会) as hinmin shakai (貧民社会). In the article, hinmin shakai is juxtaposed against Tokyō's hyōmen (surface表面), which at that time enjoyed the huge success of the third national industrial exhibition. Beneath the "surface" of Tokyō's prosperity, the author claims, there are those who suffer incredible privations and hardships due to exorbitant interest rates and an increase in rice prices. Therefore, the author adds, the leaders of shakai must not be intoxicated with prosperity and overlook the suffering of hinmin. This particular period of time, as Carol Gluck observes, was characterized by the discovery of shakai mondai (social problems社会問題) by Meiji ideologues. As shakai became specified as the locus of numerous dislocations resulting from Meiji modernity, the term hinmin came into use to represent the "victims" of the new social structure of Japan.