Horizons, Volume 3

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 33
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    Front and Back Cover
    ( 2018-11-15)
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    Editor's Foreword: A Hawaiian Place of Learning?
    ( 2018-11-15) Beaule, Christine ; Enomoto, Joy
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    Virtual Reality and Visualization in Research and Cultural Preservation
    ( 2018-11-15) Noe, Kari
    Visualization as a field can be defined as the process of turning data into interactive images to provide insight or knowledge to a user. New innovations in virtual reality hardware open up new opportunities in the field of visualization, rather than merely for entertainment. My research portfolio and poster highlight two visualization projects that I have created that utilize current virtual reality hardware, the HTC Vive and the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa’s Laboratory of Advanced Visualization and Applications (LAVA) Destiny-class CyberCANOE. The At-Risk Artifact Visualization System will allow users to view and study 3D models of archaeological artifacts and sites that are considered “at-risk” within the cyberCANOE. “At-risk” in this case is defined as: an archaeological artifact or site in danger of destruction by either human or environmental influences. Kilo Hōkū, optimized for the HTC Vive, is an immersive virtual reality simulation to aid in the visualization and education of Hawaiian star navigation practices. The goal of this portfolio is to demonstrate the possibilities virtual reality and visualization have for the field of cultural preservation.
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    An Archival Art Project about Climate Change and Internet (In)Visibility
    ( 2018-11-15) Katzeman, Aaron
    Amy Balkin is a contemporary artist whose work often addresses issues surrounding anthropogenic climate change. Her recent project A People’s Archive of Sinking and Melting (2012-present) is a crowdsourced collection of discarded remnants found in areas currently susceptible to changing climatic conditions. Through both the archive’s physical and online existence, one becomes subtly aware of the connecting qualities between the internet and climate change, specifically the seemingly subdued role each plays in everyday life despite their respective magnitudes of importance. By examining the inherent traits of the internet—particularly its participatory nature and also its increasing expansion into offline realities—and comparing them to the “slow violence” of climate change and its often semi-hidden and obscure existence, the similarities between the two become more apparent. This essay sets up a dialogue between theories of the internet developed by other artists and the practical use of the internet, such as A People’s Archive of Sinking and Melting. Balkin’s work provides the impetus for this merging realization between climate change and internet (in)visibility, allowing us to ask specific questions regarding our relationship to these ever-present phenomena.
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    The Lāhui Strikes Back: The Illegal Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom and the Struggle for Hawai‘i’s Water Resources
    ( 2018-11-15) Lowe, Ikaika
    “If we are ever to have peace and annexation the first thing to do is obliterate the past.” These words were said by Samuel Damon who assisted in the 1893 Illegal Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom. The Overthrow was a turning point in history, not just for Kānaka ‘Ōiwi or Hawaiians, but also the management of water in the islands. In this paper I will analyze a few key ways the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom enabled the sugar plantation industries to acquire and control vast amounts of Hawai‘i’s water resources. I begin this conversation by looking at the relationship water has with Kānaka ‘Ōiwi and how water was managed during the pre-arrival of Captain James Cook. I will also analyze a few of the laws that the Hawaiian Kingdom passed towards the management of water, then look at the brief history of how the sugar plantations were financed and managed in the early years towards the latter half of the 19th century. Statistics of water usage pre and post overthrow will be used, with a short history of the water ditch systems that were used to transport water to the sugar plantations. I will then end it with an analysis of the laws during the Provisional Government, Republic of Hawai‘i and Territory of Hawai‘i that dealt with water management that enabled the accumulation of power within the sugar industry by a small group of corporations.
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    Developing an Ocean Wave Buoy to Generate Renewable Energy
    ( 2018-11-15) Campbell, Angusina ; Lee, Aaron ; Bentz, Amy ; Lau, Darren ; Wong, Travis
    Humans pollute the earth with fossil fuel emissions. The pollution leads to increased ocean acidification and smog. One solution to lessen this damage is to utilize renewable energy. Ocean wave power is a renewable energy harvested by Wave Energy Converter (WEC) buoys. WECs generate energy by oscillating in the waves. The most efficient power generation by buoys happens when their natural oscillating matches the wave period (the rate at which each wave contacts the buoy); this phenomenon is known as resonance. The buoy that captures wave energy most effectively is the Oscillating Water Column (OWC) because of its ability to capture waves from any position. The Wave Energy Team designed, fabricated and tested an OWC with the main objective of generating renewable power. For the potential power, O‘ahu’s east side was chosen as the test site. The aim of this project was to deploy the buoy in an intermediate wave zone, the area between surf and deep water. In this work, wave data were collected through a simulation and scaled for practical application. A small wave buoy resonant was then developed for a two-second wave period. Finally, the results were applied to a large-scale buoy. The feasibility of creating a resonant OWC was demonstrated in the assigned zone. Resonance was achieved for the smaller buoy hull in the controlled testing site. The larger buoy, when deployed in the ocean, produced about 0.3 milliwatts when pushed up and down with artificial oscillation.
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    Deciding on the Future: Comparing the Environmental and Economic Advantages of Renewable Energy and Nuclear Power
    ( 2018-11-15) Jones, Casey M.
    Concerns over public health and environmental hazards from fossil fuel-based power plants have been prevalent topics of discussion in recent years. A shift towards cleaner forms of power is a priority for citizens, politicians, and industry leaders alike. Many forms of renewable energy have been developed recently, and some are currently available for large scale use. Nuclear power has developed to the point where it is both safe and efficient. But a negative public opinion has continually pushed nuclear power away from the discussion as a possible energy source, while less efficient forms of renewable energy have been promoted due to their lower effect on the environment despite their higher financial burden. Both nuclear power and renewable energy have their own unique advantages and disadvantages, and neither one can be considered a definitively better choice. The ultimate decision comes from whether people believe economic efficiency or environmental preservation is a higher priority, both now and in the future. In this essay, nuclear power is compared to different forms of renewable energy based on cost, environmental impact, and efficiency while addressing the most commonly seen public concerns. The results from the research show that nuclear power is more economical, offsetting fewer negative effects of fossil fuel-based power plants, while renewable energy has a larger positive impact on the environment, requiring a larger financial investment.
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    A Letter To You, Kuʻu Moʻopuna
    ( 2018-11-15) Lo, Nanea
    I wrote this poem on the island of Molokaʻi on a huakaʻi (journey) to this place. I went with a group of amazing individuals of a cohort for a Political Science course in Indigenous Politics called Nā Koʻokoʻo, taught by Professor Noelani Goodyear-Kaʻōpua. In essence the class served as the Koʻo which means to support so the class as a whole is meant to kākoʻo one another like the walking stick koʻokoʻo. We spent a week on Molokaʻi in where we were challenged to dig deep into our experience there and formulate spoken word, poems, and to articulate our feelings and emotions. In this poem that I created during my time there I reflect on my future generations that will come before me. My knowledge of what I know now about my heritage and nation and what they will know and future generations will know. It is a love line I created for them to know how much I love them, our ancestors, and Hawaiʻi.
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    A Speech Rhythm Comparison of English Speakers from Hawai‘i and California
    ( 2018-11-15) Aljader, Lana Lobato
    There has been a long tradition, since at least 1945, of research into the rhythm of speech. Considered a universal feature of language, speech rhythm is often broken down into two main categories, stress-timed and syllable-timed. Languages are assumed to fit into, or fall along a continuum between, these two categories. This study compares the recorded speech of two politicians speaking Californian English, a so-called stress-timed language, and two politicians speaking Hawai‘i English, which has yet to be categorized. Influencing languages, regional dialect, and social impacts are discussed. The software DARLA and the program Praat were used to assist in the manual insertion of vowel boundaries. To compare the ratio of differences in duration between successive vowels for each speaker the normalized Pairwise Variability Indices (nPVI) was calculated. The hypothesis that Hawai‘i English is more syllable-timed than other American varieties, as has been impressionistically observed in the literature, was not supported. Limitations of the traditional conception of rhythm and of the current study, as well as the need for further work, are discussed.
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    A Pilot Study to Assess the Effects of Spirituality on Social Functioning in People with Schizophrenia
    ( 2018-11-15) Dolim, Shelby
    Previous research suggests that religious practices are associated with a higher-quality of life in both nonclinical and clinical samples. However, few studies have examined the association between religion and quality of life in samples of people with schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the relation between religiosity and quality of life in people with schizophrenia in Hawaii. Participants completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5, the Social Functioning Scale, and Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality scale (BMMRS). Data collection is ongoing, and preliminary findings suggest that people with schizophrenia who are involved in religious activities tend to have a higher quality of life than people with schizophrenia who are not involved in religious activities. Further investigation on the effects of spirituality in people with schizophrenia is important because it could determine practical lifestyle changes that may lead to a happier and healthier life.