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    Beyond Enjoyment: A Cognitive-Emotional Perspective of Gamification
    ( 2018-01-03) Mullins, Jeffrey K. ; Sabherwal, Rajiv
    The success of gamified systems depends on their ability to engage players by eliciting both positive and negative emotions, but little guidance exists on creating emotional experiences through gamified design. This paper reviews work in psychology and neuroscience to highlight the interactive processes of cognition and emotion, and describes their relevance to gamification. Drawing on a model of the cognitive structure of emotions, and the mechanics-dynamics-emotions (MDE) framework for gamification, this paper advances a cognitive-emotional perspective of gamification and provides general propositions and directions for future research.
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    A Design Framework for Adaptive Gamification Applications
    ( 2018-01-03) Böckle, Martin ; Micheel, Isabel ; Bick, Markus ; Novak, Jasminko
    The application of gamification does not always achieve the expected results due to the shortcomings of the quite common "one size fits all" approach of standard gamification concepts. We therefore propose a design framework that can inform systematic development of adaptive gamification applications. The developed framework draws on the current body of gamification literature, focusing on the emerging research stream of adaptive gamification. It provides design paths and design principles that translate the individual elements into concrete guidelines to assist the design practice. The framework has been successfully applied to the design and implementation of a prototype application using gamification to incentivize knowledge exchange on an existing online platform for physicians in practical medical training. The evaluation in a case study indicated positive user acceptance and increased system usage after the introduction of the developed adaptive gamification solution.
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    What’s in the Game? Developing a Taxonomy of Gamification Concepts for Health Apps
    ( 2018-01-03) Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel ; Thiebes, Scott ; Tran, Minh Chau ; Sunyaev, Ali
    Gamification is a promising approach to tackle users’ infrequent and decreasing use of health apps. For this purpose, extant research provides developers of health apps with a vast number of different game elements. By abstracting from the implementation of single game elements and choosing a more holistic approach to gamification concepts, we iteratively develop a taxonomy of gamification concepts for health apps using inductive and deductive approaches and discuss its transferability to other gamification contexts. We contribute to a profound understanding of the main characteristics of gamification concepts and enable researchers and practitioners to classify and distinguish them. Our results provide interesting insights into the essential characteristics of health apps’ gamification concepts.
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    Gamification of Older Adults’ Physical Activity: An Eight-Week Study
    ( 2018-01-03) Kappen, Dennis ; Mirza-Babaei, Pejman ; Nacke, Lennart
    Designing fitness programs to combat a sedentary lifestyle and foster older adults’ motivation and goal-setting is not yet well-understood beyond point-based systems. To improve older adults’ (over 50 years) health and wellness, we studied a gamified physical activity intervention over eight weeks in an experiment (N=30) with three conditions (gamified, non-gamified, control). Our qualitative analysis showed the gamified group exhibited more engagement and interest in performing physical activity facilitated by technology. Results from our quantitative analysis indicated significance in the perceived competence dimension compared to the non-gamified and the control group. Perceived autonomy was significant for the non-gamified group against the control group. The findings from qualitative and quantitative analysis show motivation, enjoyment, and engagement were higher in the gam-ified group. This provides support for successfully facilitating older adults’ physical activity through gamified technology, which helped us create guide-lines for older adults’ adaptive engagement.
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    Gamified Workshops as Drivers for Attitudinal and Behavioral Shifts toward Sustainable Business Practices: The Role of Enjoyment, Curiosity and External Regulation
    ( 2018-01-03) Putz, Lisa-Maria ; Treiblmaier, Horst
    Gamification has recently gained a great deal of attention in various research communities. The application of game elements in non-game contexts has shown a lot of potential and the expectations of researchers and businesses are high. However, few studies exist that empirically test the effectiveness of gamification applications in business settings. To fill this gap, we present results from workshops that promoted environmentally friendly business practices. 261 individuals participated in a study in which various gamification elements were applied. Our findings illustrate that enjoyment and curiosity, both of which are strongly fostered by gamification elements, exert a significant influence on individuals’ attitudes and subsequently their behavioral intentions to adopt sustainable business practices. In contrast, the impact of external regulation turned out to be insignificant. The findings highlight the important role of enjoyment and curiosity for a sustainable change and bear important implications for academics and practitioners.
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    Gamified Digital Services: How Gameful Experiences Drive Continued Service Usage
    ( 2018-01-03) Wolf, Tobias ; Weiger, Welf H. ; Hammerschmidt, Maik
    Recently, many digital service providers started to gamify their services to promote continued service usage. Although gamification has drawn attention in both practice and research, it remains unclear how users experience gamified services and how these gameful experiences may increase service usage. This research adopts a user-centered perspective to reveal the underlying gameful experience dimensions during gamified service usage and how they drive continued service usage. Findings from Study 1 - a survey with 148 app-users - reveal four essential gameful experience dimensions (skill development, social comparison, social connectedness, and expressive freedom) and how they relate to game mechanics. Study 2, which is based on a survey among 821 app-users, shows that gameful experiences trigger continued service usage through two different types of motivation, namely autonomous and controlled motivation.
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    The Interaction of Trait Competitiveness and Leaderboard Design - An Experimental Analysis of Effects on Perceptions and Usage Intention
    ( 2018-01-03) Höllig, Christoph E. ; Tumasjan, Andranik ; Welpe, Isabell M.
    Gamification is a valuable approach to foster user engagement, raise motivation, and induce behavioral change. As a maturing field of research, the complex interactions of the various elements of gameful systems remain opaque. However, understanding these interactions, especially between user and gamified system, builds the foundation for the vast application of gamified systems. To advance our knowledge in this field, we employ an experimental research design with 192 participants. Thereby we show that users’ personal development competitiveness positively affects the perception and usage intention of a competitive gamified system in a work scenario. Further, this relationship is moderated by the system’s design. Focusing on a team-based rather than a player-based leaderboard supports the usage intentions and perceptions of individuals high in personal development competitiveness. Our study supports the need for individualized gameful systems rather than relying on one-system-fits-all approaches often found in business practice.
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    Employing Mixed Reality Applications: Customer Experience Perspective
    ( 2018-01-03) Holopainen, Jani ; Mattila, Osmo ; Parvinen, Petri ; Pöyry, Essi ; Seppälä, Kaapo
    The study analyses twelve empirical cases employing different Mixed Reality (MR) applications: 1) 360-videos, 2) augmented reality (AR) mobile applications, 3) augmented virtuality (AV), and 4) AV+AR. The empirical data in all cases consist of observations of users’ and potential customers’ experiences with different MR applications followed by qualitative interviews. The study assesses how various MR applications can create experience-centric services. The research focus is in service and sensory design as well as in customer experience management. The study results suggest that MR can provide new opportunities for prolonged customer experiences in terms of new encounters and cues, different sensory effects and improved social interactions among business representatives and fellow customers. Furthermore, MR experiences can generate positive word-of-mouth especially in cases with dramatic structures. Finally, the results suggest that the customers' willingness-to-interact with service personnel increase after a MR experience.
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    Value Co-Creation and Co-Destruction in Online Video Games: An Exploratory Study and Implications for Future Research
    ( 2018-01-03) Kokko, Jarkko ; Vartiainen, Tero ; Tuunanen, Tuure
    In this empirical study we studied how players of online video games co-create and co-destroy value. From players’ perceptions we identified that value co-creation and co-destruction occur amid themes of giving feedback and building relations. Feedback encourages players but it may also be harmful in the form of verbal abuse. Building relations relates to making friends in general but also on an international level. Building relations also relates to competition that creates a bad spirit. The most intensive interplay between value co-creation and co-destruction was found in gaming groups. Gaming groups motivate players to engage in intense gameplay, but at the same time they are resource-demanding with respect to time and mental capacity. In conclusion, we argue that further study is required of the ways that value co-creation and co-destruction interact in online video games.
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    Points for Posts and Badges to Brand Advocates: The Role of Gamification in Consumer Brand Engagement
    ( 2018-01-03) Vitkauskaitė, Elena ; Gatautis, Rimantas
    Gamification became a new attractive way to strengthen relations with consumers for companies and brands. Companies apply different gamification techniques to increase consumer brand engagement. The paper covers the concepts of gamification, the flow state, as well as consumer brand engagement. The assumptions about gamification impact on consumer brand engagement were tested empirically through quantitative analysis of data collected with online questionnaire carried out in Lithuania. Results show a weak but positive relation between gamification and consumer brand engagement. A more integrative method for data analysis, such as structural equation modeling, should be used to assess the model still. The topic could be researched in future with regard to cross-cultural differences, different player types, and different levels of gamification.