M.A. - Speech

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    A social integration perspective on expressive writing : how the perceived relationship between writer and reader affects outcomes
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2011], 2011-08) Wisner, Amy Marie
    Recent research suggests that the expressive writing paradigm, which was assumed to be anonymous and intrapersonal, may actually be a communicative and social event. The social integration theory of expressive writing assumes participants increase interactions with their social networks resulting in psychological and physical health improvements. The present study tests the idea that social integration is invoked at the moment the writer perceives the presence of another person (e.g., a reader) in the expressive writing process. Based on the salience of one's social network in instantiating the perception of emotional support, it can be expected that participants who write for a relationally close reader (i.e., close friend or romantic partner) would report stronger and more numerous health outcomes than participants who write for a non-relational reader (e.g., a researcher). Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate how perceived relational differences between writer and reader may affect expressive writing outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions designed to induce perceived relational differences with their readers. A third group served as the control. Depression, interpersonal sensitivity, physical health, cognitive intrusions and avoidance were measured. Findings successfully replicated psychological improvements and fell just shy of significance for cognitive benefits. Physical health benefits, however, were not replicated. Additionally, though the findings were not sufficient to reject the null hypotheses, this study poses important theoretical questions regarding the boundaries the social integration theory of expressive writing. Practically, it informs researchers and clinicians of the potential importance of treating expressive writing as a communicative event.
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    The influence of personality traits and self-construals on Facebook use
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [May 2011], 2011-05) Lau, Julie Jung
    This thesis examined personality traits (conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), narcissism, self-construals (independent and interdependent), and motivation (fun, time, communication, job, relationships, popular, and information) on Facebook use. Personality traits on frequency of Facebook use, amount of Facebook friends and profile length, and factors that may influence motivation to use Facebook were also examined. A survey was conducted with students from a large US western university. Results from the study showed that narcissism was significantly related to the amount of Facebook friends. Agreeableness and independent self-construal, however, were not significantly related. In this study, extraversion was associated with communication as a social-motivation to use Facebook. Conscientiousness and neuroticism, though, did not have any significant relationship with frequency of Facebook use. This finding supports the need to examine the influence of "personality traits," "motivation," and "self-construals" when interpreting social media use behavior. Suggestions for future research are addressed.
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    Proclivity to intentionally embarrass others and self scales
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2011], 2011-08) Koo, Michelle I-Vee
    The present study validated the factorial structure found by Sharkey and Hamilton (2011), and extended their research by testing the scale's convergent validity by examining the relationships between the proclivity to intentionally embarrass others and self and a number of personality constructs. One hundred thirty nine University of Hawaii at Manoa students enrolled in Speech Communication classes answered online questionnaires that contained the proclivity to intentionally embarrass others and self, Machiavellian, communication apprehension, social desirability, and gelotophobia scales. The results suggest that increases in communication apprehension were correlated with reports of lower proclivity to intentionally embarrass others and oneself as well as lower proclivity to intentionally use mild face threatening tactics to embarrass others and mild and severe face-threatening acts to embarrass oneself. Results also suggest that individuals high on social desirability will be less likely to intentionally embarrass themselves and to intentionally use severe face-threatening acts to embarrass themselves. The findings in this paper have implications in regards to understanding the types of people who are willing to disrupt the working consensus through the use of intentional embarrassment despite the possibility of negative social sanctioning from other interactants.
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    The effects of multi/biculturalism and dehumanization on human-to-robot communication
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [May 2011], 2011-05) Heo, Hyun Hee
    The present study investigates the effects of cultural orientation and the degree of dehumanization of robots on the preferred conversational styles in human-to-robot interactions. The 203 participants self-reported on questionnaires through a computerbased online survey. The two requesting situations were intended to simulate the participants' interactions with humanoid social robots through an internet video phone medium of communication, where the viewer can see the robot's face. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the mediating role of mechanistic dehumanization between multi/bicultural orientation and conversational constraints. The findings reveal that between the two dimensions of multi/bicultural orientation, only openmindedness inversely influences mechanistic dehumanization, whereas cultural empathy does not. Mechanistic dehumanization, in turn, negatively affects three face-related conversational constraints, thereby leading to a lesser concern for robots' feelings, a lesser concern for minimizing impositions on robots, and a lesser concern for avoiding robots' negative evaluations. The implications of our findings on humans' relations with virtual robot entities and on the future development of humanoid robots are discussed.