Digital Services and the Digitalization of Services

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    Throbbing Between Two Lives: Resource Pooling in Service Supply Chains
    ( 2018-01-03) van Oorschot, Kim ; Wang, Yan ; Akkermans, Henk
    Resource pooling is known to benefit performance through reduced congestion, but primarily in settings with homogenous demand. In settings where demand is heterogeneous, pooling can be counter effective. The effects of pooling of staff when demand is heterogeneous and dependent are not known. We present a simulation model based on a service supply chain that delivers Interactive TV to customers. Customers expect high performance in terms of innovativeness and reliability. Based on the results of simulation analysis, we find that when target innovativeness of the service is increased, pooling outperforms not pooling, but the delays that are involved with pooling will make the system and hence its performance unstable. Stable and high performance can be realized through "unbalanced" hiring. This means that a target performance increase in the upstream stage of the chain (innovation), is accompanied by hiring staff in the downstream stages of the chain (QA and operation).
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    Five Principles for Digital Service Innovation in Social Care
    ( 2018-01-03) Tjørnehøj, Gitte ; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh
    Digitalization in the public sector is growing to also include areas such as social care. We investigate the digital service innovation process within home care services in a Danish municipality. Inspired by theory on social materiality, we argue for an approach to digital service innovation within social care as an ongoing and entangled development of human and technological resources. We take an abductive approach as we combine theory on social-materiality and digital service innovation with empirical insights. Based in this, we propose five principles of importance for successful digital service innovation in social care: 1) mutual adaption; 2) piloting; 3) empowered; 4) situated re-innovation, and 5) continuous innovation. 
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    Towards a Taxonomy for Data-Driven Digital Services
    ( 2018-01-03) Rizk, Aya ; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta ; Elragal, Ahmed
    Digitization is transforming every domain nowadays, leading to a growing body of knowledge on digital service innovation. Coupled with the generation and collection of big data, data-driven digital services are becoming of great importance to business, economy and society. This paper aims to classify the different types of data-driven digital services, as a first step to understand their characteristics and dynamics. A taxonomy is developed and the emerging characteristics include data acquisition mechanisms, data exploitation, insights utilization, and service interaction characteristics. The examined services fall into 15 distinct types and are further clustered into 3 classes of types: distributed analytics intermediaries, visual data-driven services, and analytics-embedded services. Such contribution enables service designers and providers to understand the key aspects in utilizing data and analytics in the design and delivery of their services. The taxonomy is set out to shape the direction and scope of scholarly discourse around digital service innovation research and practice.
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    Engaging Users to Co-Create - Implications for Service Systems Design by Evaluating an Engagement Platform
    ( 2018-01-03) Grotherr, Christian ; Semmann, Martin ; Böhmann, Tilo
    Far-reaching digitalization affords significantly more opportunities for engaging actors and mobilizing resources in service systems. By leveraging these capabilities, digitally enabled service systems can facilitate user-generated services. Traditional service engineering approaches provide for such service systems. This paper presents and discusses the evaluation of a field-based design science research project for designing an engagement platform that facilitates the co-creation of user-generated services. This study reports contributions to the design knowledge of such an engagement platform and their consequences for engagement activities. Based on the evaluation, we propose design propositions for such an engagement platform from a sociotechnical perspective.
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    Can Humanoid Service Robots Perform Better Than Service Employees? A Comparison of Innovative Behavior Cues
    ( 2018-01-03) Stock, Ruth Maria ; Merkle, Moritz
    This research compares human-robot interaction with human-human interaction. More specifically, it compares potential customer responses to a humanoid service robot’s (HSR’s) behavioral cues during service encounters with those expressed by a human service employee. The behavioral cues tested in this study include innovative service behavior, defined as the extent to which a service representative creates new ideas and solutions for the customer. Based on role theory and the expectancy disconfirmation paradigm, we propose that customers generally respond positively toward an HSR’s artificial innovative service behavior cues. The experimental laboratory study with 132 student participants and an HSR of the Pepper type, shows positive responses to an HSR’s artificial innovative service behavior, but that those responses are weaker compared to human-human interactions within a similar setting. Furthermore, innovative service behavior cues exceed customer expectations and therefore, lead to customer satisfaction and delight with the HSR.
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    Utilitarian Use of Social Media Services - A Study on Twitter
    ( 2018-01-03) Köse, Dicle ; Semenov, Alexander ; Tuunanen, Tuure
    This paper applies structuration theory (ST) and service dominant logic (SDL) as lenses to study different uses of information systems (IS). We argue that resources provided by IS may be combined and reproduced by appropriating them for different purposes than the design purposes of the IS. The study provides empirical data and analysis to showcase the use of resources for utilitarian purposes in the context of social media services (SMS). Through an analysis of sponsored tweets on Twitter, we show that users employ implicit and explicit resources for utilitarian outcomes. Our findings imply that users create their own service through appropriation of resources available in the social context of service use; hence, they induce different adaptations of the information system.
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    Conceptualizing Resource Orchestration - The Role of Service Platforms in Facilitating Service Systems
    ( 2018-01-03) Andreas, Zolnowski ; Markus, Warg
    The digitization, as the profound digital transformation of business activities, processes, competencies, and models, leads in many companies to the implementation of digital service platforms as a nucleus for rapid development and the implementation of reusable digital innovations and solutions. Based on service platforms, companies strive to gain superior resource density that enables interaction with customers and partners in real-time and foster service innovation. This paper focusses on the role and purpose of service platforms in value creation and in particular, the management of resources. For this, a longitudinal single-case study method is conducted that comprises three embedded case studies as units of analysis. In this context, the meta-theoretical foundations of S-D logic are reflected and, as a result, resource orchestration as a management capability of service platforms is introduced and discussed. Moreover, the role of service platforms in managing resources in the development of innovative service systems is examined.
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    Competition Logics during Digital Platform Evolution
    ( 2018-01-03) Ojala, Arto ; Lyytinen, Kalle
    How are platforms built and how do they evolve? This is a salient question in digital ecosystems, where the competition has moved from traditional one-sided business logics to multi-sided platforms. In this paper, we explore how a digital platform evolves when the organization of the multilayered platform architecture, and related control points, is modified through competitive moves. We also examine how a firm may be able to manage the increased complexity of the platform. We show that when technical and strategic bottlenecks are solved, the platform owner can expand control to strategically important layers of the platform stack. The findings indicate that the complexity of the platform increases through a series of competitive moves. However, complexity can be managed by increasing the standardization of the platform interfaces, and by jockeying for a stronger position in critical parts of the platform stack.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Digital Services and the Digitalization of Services
    ( 2018-01-03) Tuunanen, Tuure ; Boehmann, Tilo ; Henfridsson, Ola