Volume 44 - December 2012 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Trapping Records of Fruit Fly Pest Species (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Oahu (Hawaiian Islands): Analysis of Spatial Population Trends
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) Leblanc, Luc ; Fujita, Brian ; Stein, Stuart H. ; Sawamura, Wesley K.
    Fruit fly monitoring traps with male lures (cue-lure, methyl eugenol, trimedlure, latilure) and food lure (torula yeast and BioLure) were maintained on the island of Oahu for three years (2006–2008) at 40 sites, characterized as rural or residential, with or without agriculture or feral forest in proximity. The 1.7 million flies collected belonged to species already known to be established in Hawaii (Bactrocera cucurbitae, B. dorsalis, B. latifrons, and Ceratitis capitata); no new invasive species were trapped, though the remotely possible presence of sibling species nearly identical to B. dorsalis can’t be ruled out. B. cucurbitae was predominant in leeward western Oahu and most abundant, in both rural and residential areas, wherever agriculture was practiced nearby. B. dorsalis was trapped in highest numbers in the windward northeastern portion of Oahu, and the presence of adjacent forest increased captures in both residential and rural environments. C. capitata was trapped in very large numbers at a coffee farm in Waialua and was rare at all other sites.
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    Little Fire Ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Established at Several Locations on Guam
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) Raymundo, M.L. ; Miller, R.H.
    Little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (LFA), was identified in a karst-limestone forest adjacent to a green-waste hardfill in northern Guam in No- vember 2011. Six additional LFA infestations were identified at private residences and small farms along the southwest coast of the island. Surveillance surveys sug- gest that LFA has yet to spread to the neighboring islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), or elsewhere in Micronesia. The spread of LFA to and throughout Guam is most likely due to human transport of infested plant material from LFA infested areas of Hawaii, Australia, or the U.S. mainland. The devastating effects of LFA on agriculture and forest ecosystems observed in LFA infested areas elsewhere are likely to occur on Guam and other Micronesian islands infested by LFA. Some LFA infestations on Guam may be eradicable using control techniques in use in Hawaii and other Pacific Basin countries.
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    First Records for the Aphid Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) Nagamine, Walter T. ; Garcia, Janis N.
    First observations of the aphid Greenidea ficicola are recorded from Hawaii, which was found infesting Chinese banyan, Ficus microcarpa, at Kahaluu, Oahu, on January 6, 2011. This is the second species of the Asian genus Greenidea to become established in Hawaii.
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    Forcipomyia hardyi (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a Potential Pollinator of Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Flowers in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) O'Doherty, Daniel C. ; Zoll, Janna J.K.
    Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia are known to be important pollinators of cacao trees in cocoa producing countries throughout the world. Forcipomyia hardyi is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and is here reported to pollinate cacao trees on the island of Oahu. We report that F. hardyi visits cacao flowers where it picks up pollen, and therefore it is potentially an important pollinator of cacao in Hawaii.
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    First Report of Exploitation of Coffee Beans by Black Twig Borer (Xylosandrus Compactus) and Tropical Nut Borer (Hypothenemus obscurus) (Coleoptera; Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) Greco, Elsie B. ; Wright, Mark G.
    The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus, is an ambrosia beetle that was reported in Hawaii in 1960 and attacks branches of more than 200 plant species, including coffee. This beetle was found for the first time boring coffee berries in the district of Hilo on the island of Hawaii. Beetles reached the endo- sperm and caused damage without making galleries or ovipositing. The tropical nut borer, Hypothenemus obscurus, is a pest of macadamia nuts that has been in Hawaii since 1988 and was recently found for the first time in Hawaii attacking coffee berries. Its entry hole was observed close to the blossom area or the side of the berry. Sometimes damage was caused near the endosperm but no galleries or eggs were found. Descriptions of the biology, behavior and management of these beetles are provided in this paper.
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    Field Capture of Male Melon Flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), in Jackson Traps Baited with Cue-Lure Versus Raspberry Ketone Formate in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) Shelly, Todd E. ; Kurashima, Rick S. ; Nishimoto, Jon I.
    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is an invasive worldwide pest of vegetables, particularly various species of squashes and melons. Because it poses a serious economic threat, many countries operate continuous trapping programs to detect incipient infestations. Detection currently relies on traps baited with a chemical (cue-lure, CL) that is attractive to males of this species. Earlier research suggested that a chemically similar compound (raspberry ketone formate, RKF) is more attractive than CL and thus might improve surveillance efforts. The present study describes the results of field experiments in Hawaii that compare captures of B. cucurbitae males in traps baited with (1) CL liquid versus a solid formulation (so-called plugs) of RKF or (2) CL liquid versus RKF liquid. In the first experiment, the traps with CL liquid captured more males than traps baited with RKF plugs in three of the four study sites, with no difference observed between lures at the remaining area. In the second experiment, the traps baited with CL liquid captured more males than traps baited with RKF liquid at two of the four study areas, with no difference observed between lures at the remaining two sites. The discrepancy between earlier studies and the present one highlights the need for additional field testing of RKF to assess its value as a replacement for CL.
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    Jumping Performance in Flightless Hawaiian Grasshopper Moths (Xyloryctidae: Thyrocopa spp.)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) Medeiros, Matthew J. ; Dudley, Robert
    Saltatorial locomotion has evolved multiple times in flightless Lepidop- tera, particularly on oceanic islands and in habitats with high winds. The kinematics of this behavior are unknown but are clearly relevant to escape performance in the absence of wings. We investigated jumping in two non-sister species of bra- chypterous Hawaiian moths (genus Thyrocopa). Moths were collected from the islands of Maui and Hawaii. Lateral views of jumps were recorded on video and then digitized. Jump distances of both species averaged about ten body lengths. In males of Thyrocopa apatela, jump distance was significantly correlated with the maximum horizontal component of jump velocity. Jumping ability may become enhanced as a means of evading predators when selection for flight performance is relaxed under high-wind regimes.
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    Host Plant Records for Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini) in the Pacific Islands
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) Leblanc, Luc ; Vueti, Ema T. ; Drew, Richard A.I. ; Allwood, Allan J.
    Host plants are listed for 76 species of Bactrocera and four species of Dacus, mainly based on field collection and incubation of over 20,000 samples in emergence boxes. Flies were bred from 241 host species, belonging to 139 genera in 63 families of Angiosperms. The majority of the samples were collected in eleven countries and territories under the umbrella of the Regional Fruit Fly Projects in the Pacific (RFFP): Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, French Polynesia, Fed- erated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Previously published dubious host records not confirmed under the RFFP are listed and discussed.
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    Dichromothrips smithi (Zimmermann), a New Thrips Species Infesting Bamboo Orchids Arundina graminifolia (D. Don) Hochr. and Commercially Grown Orchids in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2012-12) Hollingsworth, Robert G. ; Calvert, Frnces ; Hara, Arnold H.
    Dichromothrips smithi (Zimmermann 1990), a thrips species native to SE Asia that feeds on orchids, was first detected in Hawaii in 2007. At the time it was detected, it was already widespread on bamboo orchids in the Puna district of the island of Hawaii. The build-up of the pest in bamboo orchids threatens adjacent commercial orchid farms, several of which have reported this species as a pest. A survey on bamboo orchids in the Puna District showed that adults were highly aggregated in flowers. In an unsprayed planting of dendrobium orchids in E. Hawaii, D. smithi was the dominant thrips species present over a two-year period. Higher numbers of D. smithi adults and larvae were found on bamboo orchids growing as volunteers within this planting, suggesting that bambbe used as a trap crop to protect more valuable types of orchids.