A Review of Biological Control Introductions in Hawaii: 1890 to 1985

Funasaki, George Y.
Lai, Po-Yung
Nakahara, Larry M.
Beardsley, John W.
Ota, Asher K.
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Hawaiian Entomological Society
Classical biological control has been practiced in Hawaii for almost a hundred years due to the influx of many new immigrant pest species into the Islands. Six hundred seventy-nine species of organisms were purposely introduced and released in Hawaii during 1890 to 1985 for the biological control of insects, weeds, and other pest species; 243 (35.8%) have become established. Two hundred ten (86.4%) of the 243 established species have been recorded to prey on or attack about 200 pest species. Of the 210, 64.6% (157 of 243 species) attack the intended target pests only, while 21.8% (53 of 243 species) attack both target and non-target pest species. The remaining 33 (13.6%) of the 243 established species have been reported to prey on or attack pest, native and/or beneficial species. Of the 33, 8.2% (20 or 243 species) have been reported from native species, 7.0% (17 of 243 species) from beneficial organisms. No purposely introduced species, approved for release in the past 21 years, has been recorded to attack any native or other desirable species.
Funasaki GY, Lai PY, Nakahara LM, Beardsley JW, Ota AK. 1988. A review of biological control introductions in Hawaii: 1890 to 1985. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 28:105-160.
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