Volume 28 – 1988 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Establishment of Encarsia smithi on Kosrae for Control of the Orange Spiny Whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Nafus, Donald
    Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was first reported from Kosrae in 1982. In 1983, Encarsia smithi (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was released for control of the whitefly. The parasite was recovered in 1984. At that time it parasitized 77 percent of the whiteflies. In 1986, 86 percent of the whiteflies were parasitized.
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    Arenicolous Halacaridae (Acari) in Hawaiian Waters
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Bartsch, Ilse
    On beaches of the Hawaiian Islands, several marine mites were collected. Eight arenicolous species are described, viz. Actacarus pacificus Bartsch. A. uniscutatus Bartsch, Acarochelopodia triunguis Bartsch, n.sp., .A. biunguis Bartsch, n.sp., Acarochelopodia sp., Scaptognathus kunzi Bartsch, n.sp., Scaptognathides hawaiiensis Bartsch. n.sp., and S. ornatus Bartsch, n.sp. The geographical distribution of these genera is outlined. On the basis of the form of leg I and the gnathosoma, hypotheses on the mode of feeding are proposed. Keys to the species of Aclacarus, Acarochelopodia, Scaptognathus and Scaptognathides, known from the eastern North Pacific, are added.
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    Evaluation of Two Formulations of A Laboratory Diet for the Orchid Weevil Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waterhouse)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Mau, Ronald F.L. ; Lai, Po-Yung
    A did for laboratory rearing of the orchid weevil, Orchidophilus aterrimus (Walerhouse), was developed and evaluated. Evaluation of 2 formulations of the diet showed that both formulations were suitable for orchid weevil development. Evaluation of one formulation of the diet showed that it was suitable as a food for adult weevils.
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    Parasitization of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Johnson, M.W. ; Mitchell, W.C. ; Robin, M.R. ; Cushing, N.L. ; Rethwisch, M.D.
    Field studies were conducted at Pulehu. Maui, to determine parasitoid species attacking diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), on cabbage in 1984 and 1985. Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diadegma insulare (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were the predominant parasitoids reared from DBM larvae. Total percentage parasitism at Pulehu varied from 0 to 59%. Surveys taken in 1986-87 at 6 sites in Hawaii on various crops showed that C. plutellae was widely established in the major vegetable growing areas of the state. D. insulare was recovered only from those sites greater than 780 m in altitude.
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    The Prevalence of Infections of Nosema meslini (Microsporida: Nosematidae) in Field Populations of Artogeia rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) Adults in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Haji-Mamat, Hasbullah ; Tamashiro, Minoru
    Infections by Nosema meslini (Paillot) in adults of the imported cabbageworm, Artogeia rapae (L.) were at epizootic levels at Kahuku, Pearl City and Wahiawa and at enzootic levels at Kahaluu, Waianae, and Waipahu in March 1983. Monthly samples of adults made at Pearl City and Wahiawa showed that the disease was present in these populations at an enzootic or epizootic state throughout the year. The annual cycle of disease in the two areas was almost identical although the physical parameters, temperature, rainfall and elevation in the two areas were quite different. It was apparent that the physical parameters measured did not significantly effect the annual cycle of the disease. The prevalence of the disease indicated that it may be a significant factor in regulation of populations of the imported cabbageworm in Hawaii.
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    Biological Control: A Positive Point of View
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Lai, Po-Yung
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    Predation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly and the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by the Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Wong, Marianne A. ; Wong, Tim T.Y.
    Predation by Solenopsis geminata (F.) on mature larvae and teneral adult flies of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, was studied in the laboratory' and on the ground beneath guava trees in Hawaii. In the laboratory, S. geminata produced 100% larval mortality in C. capitata in 15-sec. attacks by an average of 5 ants per larva and 80% larval mortality in D. dorsalis in 15-sec. attacks by an average of 4.5 ants per larva. When C. capitata and D. dorsalis pupae were buried in the soil beneath guava trees in protected cages to permit only ant-sized predators to enter, the average mortality of teneral adult flies from predators was 31.0% and 35.0%, respectively. Total mortality from the time 8-day-old pupae were placed in the field was 73.4% and 70%, respectively, for C. capitata and D. dorsalis. We infer that predacious ants play a prominent role in this mortality.
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    A New Parechthrodryinus Girault, 1916 Attacking Xylococculus Morrison, 1927 in California, with a Discussion of the Host Relationship (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae; Homoptera: Margarodidae.)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Beardsley, John W. ; Gordh, Gordon
    Parechthrodryinus xylococculi New Species is described from material taken at several localities in California. The species parasitizes Xylococculus macrocarpae (Coleman). This account represents the first bona fide recored of an encyrtid attacking representatives of the Xylococcinae, a primitive subfamily of margarodid.
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    A Review of Biological Control Introductions in Hawaii: 1890 to 1985
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Funasaki, George Y. ; Lai, Po-Yung ; Nakahara, Larry M. ; Beardsley, John W. ; Ota, Asher K.
    Classical biological control has been practiced in Hawaii for almost a hundred years due to the influx of many new immigrant pest species into the Islands. Six hundred seventy-nine species of organisms were purposely introduced and released in Hawaii during 1890 to 1985 for the biological control of insects, weeds, and other pest species; 243 (35.8%) have become established. Two hundred ten (86.4%) of the 243 established species have been recorded to prey on or attack about 200 pest species. Of the 210, 64.6% (157 of 243 species) attack the intended target pests only, while 21.8% (53 of 243 species) attack both target and non-target pest species. The remaining 33 (13.6%) of the 243 established species have been reported to prey on or attack pest, native and/or beneficial species. Of the 33, 8.2% (20 or 243 species) have been reported from native species, 7.0% (17 of 243 species) from beneficial organisms. No purposely introduced species, approved for release in the past 21 years, has been recorded to attack any native or other desirable species.
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    Introductions for Biological Control in Hawaii: 1985 and 1986
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1988) Funasaki, G.Y. ; Nakahara, L.M. ; Kumashiro, B.R.