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ItemEducation creates unrest' : state schooling and Muslim society in Thailand and the Philippines( 2007)In educational studies, the politics of state schooling, particularly in crafting national identities, cultures, and allegiances has been a common focus of scholarly interest. However, in Southeast Asian studies, less work has been committed to understanding the cultural politics of government-sponsored education in the context of colonialism, nation building, and/or modernity. Within this body of literature, few scholars have sought to examine the state school in cases where it has been challenged, questioned, or resisted. Additionally, there is a persisting. tendency to. observe the development of modern education from the perspective of the center, majority, and elite, consequently paying scant attention to the making of the margins and the historical experiences unique to their schooling environments. Therefore, based on archival research and preliminary fieldwork, this thesis aims to explore the cultural, political, and historical contexts of modern education through two case studies: the first in southern Thailand and the second in the southern Philippines. It concludes by connecting these educational pasts to the present challenges confronting state schooling in the Muslim minority regions of Greater Patani and Mindanao and Sulu, respectively.
ItemHuman trafficking in Mindanao, Philippines( 2007)Human Trafficking, for the purpose of this thesis, is defined as the legal or illegal transportation and trade of women and girls under the age of 18, through the use of threat, deception, and fraud for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labor. It is also commonly called modern day slavery. Human trafficking exploded into the Filipinos' consciousness duririg the early twenty-first century, yet it is nothing new. For decades, many provinces in the northern 'and central regions of the Philippines such as Bicol and Leyte have been identified as the source and destination of trafficked victims.The southernmost Philippine island of Mindanao and Sulu Archipelago have now become a significant source of trafficked beings in the Philippines, and this appears to be a new development. 3 Why are Mindanao women and girls more susceptible to trafficking than those from other parts of the Philippines? I propose that they are more susceptible to trafficking because of the marginalization of Mindanao 'by the Philippine government, which has led to extreme poverty, war and conflict, and the breakdown offamilies and communities. This thesis will examine the following issues: poverty (Chapter 3), war and conflict (Chapter 3), and demand for prostitution (Chapter 4). It will study the period between 1990 to June 2007. This thesis will be based on empirical data, narratives of three survivors, and on the historical events that led to the marginalization of Mindanao and eventual escalation of trafficking.