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    Arsenic and Nutrient Composition Across Different Edible Seaweeds From Hawaii
    ( 2022-06) Kim, Samuel ; Conklin, Sean D. ; Redan, Benjamin W. ; Ho, Kacie K.H.Y.
    Objectives Seaweed is used for various cultural, culinary, and medicinal purposes in Hawaii and has been consumed for generations around the world (i.e., the Pacific, Asia, and parts of Europe). In the US, seaweed is gaining popularity because of its reputation for being highly nutritional. However, some types of seaweed are known to accumulate heavy metals, including inorganic arsenic (iAs) species. While some seaweed species have been studied, there is still limited species-specific compositional data. The purpose of this study was to quantify arsenic and nutrient (i.e., macronutrient and mineral) levels in edible seaweeds. Methods Brown algae (Sargassum aquifolium and Sargassum spp.), red algae (Gracilaria parvispora, Halymenia formosa, and Halymenia hawaiiana, and green algae (Ulva ohnoi) were analyzed using HPLC-ICP-MS for arsenic speciation. Proximate (protein, dietary fiber, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, crude fat, and crude protein) and mineral (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B) analyses were conducted. Values were expressed per freeze-dried weight (FDW) or fresh weight serving (FW) of seaweed. Results Brown algae had the highest concentration of total and iAs compared to all others. Statistical differences amongst macronutrients and minerals existed across seaweed species, with G. parvispora having higher Mn (∼510 µg/g FDW) and K (∼4.6 g/100g FDW) levels compared to all other samples (P < 0.05). Based on recommended nutritional daily values, G. parvispora (∼80 g FW) was high in Mn, H. formosa (∼100 g FW) was high in Fe, U. ohnoi (∼100 g FW) was high in Mg, and H. hawaiiana (∼100 g FW) was high in Mg, Fe, and Zn. Conclusions Overall, these findings indicate significant differences in composition across seaweed species. As some seaweeds were excellent sources of essential nutrients while others were high in iAs, it is critical to continually expand compositional data to assess both nutritional adequacy and safety of diets. Funding Sources USDA-ARS, FDA.
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    Potential Health Effects of Tea
    (Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc., ) Ho, Kacie ; Haufe, Thomas C. ; Ferruzzi, Mario G. ; Neilson, Andrew P.
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    Production and Polyphenolic Composition of Tea
    (Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc., ) Ho, Kacie ; Haufe, Thomas C. ; Ferruzzi, Mario G. ; Neilson, Andrew P.
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    Potential health benefits of (poly)phenols derived from fruit and 100% fruit juice
    (Oxford University Press, ) Ho, Kacie ; Ferruzzi, Mario G. ; Wightman, JoLynne D.
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    Synergistic and antagonistic effects of plant and dairy protein blends on the physicochemical stability of lycopene-loaded emulsions
    ( 2018) Ho, Kacie K.H.Y. ; Schroën, Karin ; Martín-González, M. Fernanda ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.
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    Microwave-assisted extraction of lycopene in tomato peels: effect of extraction conditions on all-trans and cis- isomer yields
    ( 2015) Ho, Kacie K.H.Y. ; Ferruzzi, M.G. ; Liceaga, A.M. ; San Martín-González, M.F.
    Lycopene is the primary carotenoid in tomato peels, a processing byproduct, and can be used as a natural color or bioactive ingredient. Unfortunately, extractions are inefficient as lycopene is extremely nonpolar and susceptible to degradation. As a rapid technique, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) potentially offers efficient lycopene recovery. Thus, the objectives of this research were to: 1) optimize MAE of lycopene from tomato peels and 2) evaluate the effect of treatment on all-trans and isomer yields. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize lycopene extraction with solvent ratio solid-liquid ratios, microwave power, and delivered energy equivalents as factors. High performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used for isomer separation and quantification. Optimum MAE conditions were determined as: 0:10 solvent ratio at 400 W with a yield of 13.592 mg/100 g of extracted all-trans-lycopene. RSM suggested that ethyl acetate was a better MAE solvent for lycopene recovery as compared to hexane, which overall extracted less lycopene. HPLC-DAD indicated that MAE significantly improved all-trans and total lycopene yields, while conventional extraction demonstrated higher proportions of cis-isomer yields. Additionally, electron micrographs showed that significant structural disruption occurred in MAE-treated samples, possibly allowing for the improved lycopene extraction.
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    Physicochemical stability of lycopene-loaded emulsions stabilized by plant or dairy proteins
    ( 2017) Ho, Kacie K.H.Y. ; Schroen, Karin ; Martin-Gonzalez, M. Fernanda ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.
    Lycopene is a lipophilic bioactive compound that has many health benefits but can be challenging to deliver in vivo. To mediate this, delivery strategies should be developed, and protein-stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been suggested to improve the physicochemical stability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of lycopene. In this research different proteins were compared to determine their impact on the physical stability (droplet size, charge, interfacial rheology) and lycopene retention in canola O/W emulsions. Two were of dairy (whey protein isolate, sodium caseinate) and two of plant (soy and pea protein isolate) origin; plant proteins being of interest due to their wider availability, reduced cost, and lower impact on the environment compared to dairy proteins. Particle size distribution for sodium caseinate and pea protein-stabilized emulsions remained unchanged after 14 days of refrigerated storage, while whey and soy protein isolate-stabilized emulsions became unstable. The droplet charge was largely negative (~ -45 – -60 mV) for all emulsions and the lycopene concentration in plant protein-stabilized emulsions at 14 days of storage was similar to that in sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsions, but significantly higher than that in whey proteinstabilized emulsions. While sodium caseinate formed relatively viscous films at the oil-water interface, the other proteins showed more viscoelastic behaviour. In spite of this difference, both the caseinate and pea protein stabilized emulsions were promising delivery vehicles. This also indicates that plant-derived proteins can be feasible alternatives to dairy emulsifiers.
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    Open Educational Resource Textbook Impact on Students in an Introductory Nutrition Course
    (ScienceDirect, 2019-09-13) Fialkowski, Marie K. ; Calabrese, Allison ; Tillinghast, Beth ; Titchenal, C. Alan ; Meinke, William ; Banna, Jinan C. ; Draper, Jennifer
    Objective To determine if student outcomes, usage, perceptions, and engagement differ between introductory nutrition courses that used an open educational resource (OER) textbook compared with a traditional textbook. Design Cross-sectional. Setting College introductory nutrition course. Participants Students enrolled in introductory nutrition courses that used a traditional textbook or an OER textbook. Intervention Implementation of an OER textbook in all introductory nutrition courses during 1 semester. Main Outcome Measure(s) Usage, perceptions, and engagement with the textbook were evaluated by an online survey. Student outcome data (eg, grades) were collected from the learning management system at the end of the semester. Analysis Differences in student outcomes, usage, perceptions, and engagement were determined by t tests. Open-ended responses on textbook likes and dislikes were evaluated by thematic analysis. Results The number of students who completed the introductory nutrition course with a traditional textbook (n = 346) was higher than those who completed the course with an OER textbook (n = 311). There was no difference in student outcomes between textbooks. P values for student usage ranged from <.001 to .001, <.001 for engagement, and <.001 to .001 for perception with the OER textbook, with significantly better P values for outcomes than those with the traditional textbook. The $0 cost and place-based nature were noted as positive attributes of the OER textbook, whereas students appreciated the format and visual appeal of the traditional textbook. Conclusions and Implications Academic performance in introductory nutrition was not affected by an OER textbook. An OER textbook for introductory nutrition may be an appropriate solution for institutions seeking to reduce student costs.
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    Postharvest Biology
    (Exon Press, 2004) Kays, Stanley J. ; Paull, Robert E.