Pacific Science Volume 16, Number 3, 1962

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    Revision of the Genus Pandanus Stickman, Part 12. Queensland Pandanus
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1962-07) St. John, Harold
    In 1958, under a grant from the National Science Foundation, the writer made an expedition in search of Pandanus in New Guinea and in Queensland, Australia. Most of the following novelties were collected on that trip, in company with Dr. Stanley T. Blake of the Botanic Museum, Brisbane.
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    Predation on the California Sea Hare, Aplysia californica Cooper, by the Solitary Great Green Sea Anemone, Anthopleura xanthogrammica (Brandt), and the Effect of Sea Hare Toxin and Acetylcholine on Anemone Muscle
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1962-07) Winkler, Lindsay R. ; Tilton, Bernard E.
    Because there are no known predators to feed on them in their adult state, the sea hares do not seem to enter into the prey-predator relationships of the sea. They do, however, appear to have a place in the food economy in certain limited ways. Great numbers of larvae are produced by the sea hares (MacGinitie, 1934), which presumably are consumed in large numbers by predaceous plankton and filter-feeders. Large quantities of sea weed are masticated, partially digested, and passed in the fecal pellets, thus somewhat abbreviating the process by which sea weed becomes detritus. Finally, when the adults die their bodies become a part of the marine economy by providing nutrition for bacterial flora, or perhaps for scavengers such as Pachygrapsus, which on occasion have been observed feeding on the bodies of dead sea hares.
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    Studies on the Embryology of Pycnopodia helianthoides (Brandt) Stimpson
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1962-07) Greer, Donald L.
    The Embryonic development of Pycnopodia helianthoides, the 20-rayed sea star, which has a small egg (120j-t), an indirect form of development, and larval metamorphosis, has not been previously reported in detail. Mortensen (1921) was able to rear only the early gastrula. No other references to the development of Pycnopodia have been found. Species of other multi-rayed sea stars with a yolky egg (and in consequence a more direct form of development) are much better known, e.g., Solaster endeca (Gemmill, 1912), Leptasterias hexactis (Osterud, 1918), and Crossaster papposus (Gemmill, 1920).
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    Red-Water Blooms off Northern Chile, April-May 1956, with Reference to the Ecology of the Swordfish and the Striped Marlin
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1962-07) De Sylva, Donald P.
    From mid-April to early May 1956 the writer participated in the University of Miami-Lou Marron Pacific Billfish Expedition off northern Chile in the Peru Coastal Current (Sverdrup et al., 1942: 701-702). During this period, water temperatures and plankton tows were taken, and observations were made on the biology and distribution of several planktonic and nektonic species.
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    Bacterial Flora of Seven Species of Fish Collected at Rongelap and Eniwetok Atolls
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1962-07) Colwell, Rita R. ; Liston, John
    A very extensive literature exists concerning the normal bacterial flora of marine fish species common to the northern ocean areas, i.e., the North Sea (Stewart, 1932; Aschehoug and Vesterhus, 1943; Reay and Shewan, 1949; Liston, 1956, 1957; Georgala, 1958), the North Atlantic (Reed and Spence, 1929; Gibbons, 1934a, 1934b; Dyer, 1947), and the North Pacific (Hunter, 1920; Fellers, 1926; Snow and Beard, 1939; Kiser, 1944; Kiser and Beckwith, 1942, 1944; Liston, 1959). These studies of the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial flora found on a number of different species of northern ocean fishes have shown that, while the generic distribution of the bacteria associated with freshly caught marine fish may vary quantitatively, the following genera predominate fairly consisteritly: Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, and Micrococcus. The genera Proteus, Sarcina, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, and Serratia are encountered less often. Some investigators have discussed the biochemistry of the organisms isolated from marine fish (viz., Thjotte and Somme, 1943) but most of the physiology and biochemistry is limited to only a few properties studied for classifying the microorganisms. A somewhat more extensive discussion of the anabolic and catabolic aspects of the bacterial groups found on North Pacific fish has been given by Colwell (1961) and Liston and Colwell (1962).
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