Volume 27 Number 3, October 2023 Special Issue: Extended Reality (XR) in Language Learning

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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
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    Restructuring multimodal corrective feedback through Augmented Reality (AR)-enabled videoconferencing in L2 pronunciation teaching
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2023-10-02) Wen, Yiran ; Li, Jian ; Xu, Hongkang ; Hu, Hanwen
    The problem of cognitive overload is particularly pertinent in multimedia L2 classroom corrective feedback (CF), which involves rich communicative tools to help the class to notice the mismatch between the target input and learners’ pronunciation. Based on multimedia design principles, this study developed a new multimodal CF model through augmented reality (AR)-enabled videoconferencing to eliminate extraneous cognitive load and guide learners’ attention to the essential material. Using a quasi-experimental design, this study aims to examine the effectiveness of this new CF model in improving Chinese L2 students’ segmental production and identification of the targeted English consonants (dark /ɫ/, /ð/and /θ/), as well as their attitudes towards this application. Results indicated that the online multimodal CF environment equipped with AR annotation and filters played a significant role in improving the participants’ production of the target segments. However, this advantage was not found in the auditory identification tests compared to the offline CF multimedia class. In addition, the learners reported that the new CF model helped to direct their attention to the articulatory gestures of the student being corrected, and enhance the class efficiency. Implications for computer-assisted pronunciation training and the construction of online/offline multimedia learning environments are also discussed.
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    Call for papers for a special issue on Multimodality in Relation to Learning Processes and Gains
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2023-10-02) Hui, Bronson ; Kessler, Matt
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    Using immersive virtual reality for the assessment of intercultural conflict mediation
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2023-10-02) Taguchi, Naoko
    This exploratory study adopted immersive virtual reality (VR) technology to develop a task assessing college students’ intercultural competence, specifically their ability to mediate an intercultural conflict. Participants were 22 students enrolled in the intercultural communication class in a U.S. university. They first completed a pre-conflict mediation task using a VR platform following three steps: (a) reading a scenario describing a conflict situation between people from different cultures; (b) observing two people having a conflict in a 360-degree VR video; and (c) mediating the conflict on-the-spot by proposing a solution to the conflict. After completing the pre-task, they attended two class sessions (75 minutes each) that aimed to develop their conflict mediation skills. After the sessions, they completed a post-conflict mediation task following the same steps as the pre-task. A comparison between the pre- and post-task performance revealed significant gains in conflict mediation skills assessed on five dimensions: social initiative, empathy, perspective-taking, solution, and clarity in discourse. Survey data showed that the VR task evoked realistic emotions from witnessing a conflict, which in turn prompted the participants to take initiative in mediating the conflict.
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    A review of technology-enhanced Chinese character teaching and learning in a digital context
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2023-10-02) Li, Michael
    The acquisition of Chinese characters has been widely acknowledged as challenging for learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) due to their unique logographic nature and the time and effort involved. However, recent advancements in instructional technologies demonstrate a promising role in facilitating the teaching and learning of Chinese characters. This paper examines studies exploring technology-enhanced character teaching and learning (TECTL) through a systematic literature review of relevant publications produced between 2010 and 2021. The synthesized findings shed insights on the research undertaken in the TECTL field, identifying a focus on characters’ component disassembling, re-assembling, and associations among orthography, semantics, and phonology. In addition, learners’ perceptions toward the use of technology and the benefits of various types of technological tools are also discussed in detail. Implications for TECTL are also put forward for future pedagogical practice and exploration.
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    A systematic review of technology-enhanced L2 listening development since 2000
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2023-10-02) Zhang, Ruofei ; Zou, Di ; Cheng, Gary
    Since 2000, technology-enhanced L2 listening development (TELD) has been increasingly investigated. However, systematic reviews concerning the technologies, learning tasks, and outcomes of TELD remain limited. To fill this gap, we conducted a systematic review of publications from 2000 to 2022 on TELD from the perspectives of technologies, learning tasks, and learning outcomes. Forty-six articles from Web of Science were screened by predefined criteria and analysed based on a step-by-step procedure using the PRISMA framework. The findings revealed 13 types of technology and 19 learning tasks useful for TELD. TELD was effective both in terms of building listening skills and enhancing learner emotions. The studies showed that TELD supported learner interactions, encouraged active engagement, and augmented various learning tasks. Based on the findings, we developed a TELD model consisting of two parts: “Within cognitive systems,” in which learners deal with cognitive schemata, listening strategy application, and listening practice via solid attention; “outside of cognitive systems,” in which TELD can construct and reconstruct cognitive schemata, support listening practices, encourage and guide listening strategy application, and improve learner emotions and attention by providing learning materials and activities based on listening-related knowledge, listening exercises with feedback, prompts and feedback on listening strategy application, and a sense of enjoyment and comfort.
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    Can ChatGPT make reading comprehension testing items on par with human experts?
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2023-10-02) Shin, Dongkwang ; Lee, Jang Ho ; Mimi Li
    Given the recent increased interest in ChatGPT in the L2 teaching and learning community, the present study sought to examine ChatGPT’s potential as a resource for generating L2 assessment materials on par with those created by human experts. To this end, we extracted five reading passages and testing items in the format of multiple-choice questions from the English section of the College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT) in South Korea. Additionally, we used ChatGPT to generate another set of readings and testing items in the same format. Next, we developed a survey made up of Likert-scale questions and open-ended response questions that asked about participants’ perceptions of the diverse aspects of the target readings and testing elements. The study’s participants were comprised of 50 pre- and in-service teachers, and they were not informed of the target materials’ source or the study’s purpose. The survey’s results revealed that the CSAT and ChatGPT-developed readings were perceived as similar in terms of naturalness of the target passages’ flow and expressions. However, the former was judged as having included more attractive multiple-choice options, as well as having a higher completion level regarding testing items. Based on such outcomes, we then present implications for L2 teaching and future research.
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    Presence and agency in real and virtual spaces: The promise of extended reality for language learning
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2023-10-02) Godwin-Jones, Robert ; Robert Godwin-Jones
    Augmented and virtual realities (together “extended reality”) offer language learners the opportunity to communicate and interact in real and virtual spaces. In augmented reality (AR), users view computer-generated layers added to a phone camera’s view of the world. Virtual reality (VR) immerses users in a 3D environment that might simulate aspects of the outside world or project an entirely imagined reality. This column looks at opportunities and challenges in the use of extended reality (XR) for second language learning. Opportunities include higher learner motivation and personal agency through XR uses that feature collaboration and open-ended interactions, particularly in simulations, games, and learner co-design. That direction offers more alignment with current theories of second language acquisition (SLA)–emphasizing holistic language development and ecological frameworks–than most commercial VR apps currently available. Those posit a linear language development and focus largely on vocabulary learning and language practice within closed role-play scenarios. Offering both AR and VR access, mixed reality may present opportunities to combine the best features of each medium. Advances in generative artificial intelligence (AI) provide additional possibilities for personalized language learning in a flexible and dynamic VR environment.
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    Extended reality (XR) in language learning: Developments and directions
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2023-10-02) Pegrum, Mark ; Lan, Yu-Ju