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ItemIn Search for Holistic ICT4D Research: A Systematic Literature Review( 2018-01-03)The technologist vs. contextualist debate has divided Information and Communications Technology for Development (ICT4D) research. Today, the field is disconnected across three distinct research streams, which should be consolidated into a more holistic discourse. However, this endeavor remained unfeasible to date, because the similarities and differences of these ICT4D streams had not been clearly conceptualized. Our present work addresses this gap in knowledge through a systematic review of extant ICT4D research from 2007-2016. We provide an in-depth analysis of 48 articles, identify and discuss the characteristics of each research stream, and offer new insights on how knowledge in the field might be consolidated into a more holistic fashion.
ItemInverting the Relationship between Development and Public Access Computing (PAC): A Comparative Study of PAC Ecosystems( 2018-01-03)A robust body of research has examined how public access computing (PAC) may support or lead to development in international contexts. This study explores an inverse relationship: how the policy and activity of development shapes PAC. It utilizes the metaphor of the ecosystem to study the ensemble of organizations, resources, venues, and infrastructures that construct and comprise PAC. This study examines PAC ecosystems in two large South American cities, utilizing a case study strategy. Comparison of the PAC ecosystems yields sharp contrasts. The findings indicate that convergences with and divergences from development policy and activity influence the PAC ecosystem, and that studying PAC ecosystems offers a sociotechnical approach to illuminate ICT4D phenomena.
ItemThe Role of Open Source Communities in Development: Policy Implications for Governments( 2018-01-03)Open Source Software (OSS) communities engage in a shared design of software that meets the needs of community members. This dynamic may have a positive influence on development by enabling the growth of micro-enterprises thus offering opportunities for governments to stimulate their growth. This paper explores the connection between OSS communities and development outcomes to arrive at a theoretical framework that enables the investigation of the role of OSS communities in development. By examining existing government policies, we find that policymakers recognize the potential for OSS communities to create shared value through private-collective innovation. In understanding the transformative role of OSS, this research investigates (1) how OSS communities contribute to development efforts and (2) how government policy can stimulate development efforts through OSS. The contribution of this paper is in the policy implications for governments on how they may use OSS to drive development.