Pacific Science Volume 25, Number 1, 1971

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Observations on the Feeding Behavior of Conus geographus (Gastropoda:Toxoglossa)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) Johnson, Clifford R. ; Stablum, William
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    A New Species of Melita (Amphipoda:Gammaridae) from the Marshall Islands, Micronesia
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) Croker, Robert A.
    During the summers of 1968 and 1969, the author collected and studied amphipods from intertidal and subtidal lagoon habitats of three atolls (Eniwetok, Kwajalein, and Majuro) in the Marshall Islands, Micronesia. Particular emphasis was placed on collecting from calcareous sands and gravels, since most workers to date have reported on the more abundant epifaunal species (Schellenberg, 1938; Barnard, 1965). In addition, efforts were made to collect complete series of life history stages, and to study morphological variations, behavior, and general ecology of the more abundant species.
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    On a New Commensal Shrimp Periclimenes hirsutus sp. nov. (Crustacea, Decapoda Natantia, Pontoniinae) from Fiji
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) Bruce, A.J.
    Periclimenes hirsutus, a new species of pontoniid shrimp collected in Fiji, is described. The shrimp was obtained from a littoral echinoid. The distinctive features of the shrimp and its relationship to other species are discussed.
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    Differentiation and Commensalism in the Hydroid Proboscidactyla flavicirrata
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) Strickland, David L.
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    On the Reef Corals of the World's Most Northern Atoll (Kure: Hawaiian Archipelago)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) Dana, Thomas F.
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    Endemic Plants of Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Plant Studies 36
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) St. John, Harold
    Much of the mountain Haleakala on Maui is of easy access and has a flora quite well known. Kipahulu Valley is an outer valley at the southeast corner of the great volcano. It is remote, difficult of access, and its middle and upper parts have a dense, wet, virgin vegetation. An attempt is now being made to acquire title to it and to preserve it as a wilderness or nature preserve.
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    Southeast Asian Myxomycetes. I. Thailand and Burma
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) Reynolds, Don R. ; Alexopoulos, Constantine J.
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    Study of the Ecology of Pioneer Lichens, Mosses, and Algae on Recent Hawaiian Lava Flows
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) Jackson, Togwell A.
    The ecology of pioneer lichens, mosses, and blue-green algae on some recent Hawaiian lava flows was investigated quantitatively. Up to an elevation of at least 3,000 feet, the major variables of the physical environment are rainfall, rock texture, and sea breezes. The lichen Stereocaslon vulcani, the most abundant and widespread pioneer organism, shows a marked preference for regions of higher rainfall, but all species of Parmelia and Cladonia, together with an unidentified crustose lichen, were found only in areas of lower rainfall. The mosses and blue-green algae prefer relatively humid regions, but Campylopus densifolius is able to grow in some areas that are too dry to permit growth of Rhacomitrium lanuginosum, Rough aa lava provides a more favorable substrate for Stereocaulon vulcani than does the smoother pahoehoe, but this effect becomes less pronounced with increasing rainfall. Thus, aa creates a more moist environment than does pahoehoe, probably because its highly irregular, pitted surface is better able to trap and retain rainwater. A possible contributing factor is the greater susceptibility of aa to chemical weathering. On some lavas, lichens and mosses preferentially colonize seaward-facing rock surfaces. This is ascribed to water vapor conveyed inland by sea breezes. Nutrients in wind-borne ocean salts may play a secondary role. The net effect of rainfall , rock texture, and, in some cases, sea breezes determines the abundance and gross vegetative morphology of Stereocaulon vulcani, its ability to gain a foothold , and the level of maturity which it can attain. The successfulness of S. vulcani in colonizing lava can be ascribed to its ability to invade vesicles and narrow recesses in the rock, its ability (or that of its associated microflora, or both) to accelerate the chemical weathering of the rock, and its rapid rates of dispersal, establishment, and growth. Under optimal conditions, S. vulcani spreads rapidly over a fresh rock surface, and dominates the pioneer community, probably by preempting space which might otherwise be occupied by slower-growing species. In one particularly damp area, mosses and blue-green algae increase at the expense of S. vulcani, In one exceptionally dry area, Stereocaulon is initially the most abundant lichen on the aa flows, but it never attains maturity, and its numerical importance is gradually superseded by that of Parmelia and Cladonia, which are better adapted to dry conditions. No evidence of "mat" formation was found. Vascular plants spring up in crevices, while lichens, mosses, and algae occupy the intervening rock surfaces.
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    Experiments on Green Algae Coexistent with Zooxanthellae in Sea Anemones
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1971-01) Muscatine, Leonard
    Along the Pacific coast of North America sea anemones of the genus Anthopleura are dominant intertidal coelenterates. They occur as solitary tide pool inhabitants (A . xanthogrammica) or as aggregations carpeting firm substrates (A. elegantissima). One of the unique features of these species is their invariable symbiotic association with unicellular Dinophyceae. These brown or yellow-brown algae, known as zooxanthellae, occur intracellularly in the gastrodermal tissues of the host anemone (Muscatine, 1961) .
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