Advances in Teaching and Learning Technologies

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    PointerViz - Towards Visualizing Pointers for Novice Programmers
    ( 2020-01-07) Venigalla, Akhila Sri Manasa ; Lakkundi, Chaitanya S. ; Chimalakonda, Sridhar
    Pointers are considered as one of the key concepts in learning programming and are extensively used for implementing several data structures. They lay the foundation for handling dynamic aspects of a program, increase execution speed and handle data types with more efficiency. This makes it critical for budding programmers to be well versed with using pointers. However, most of the novice programmers find it difficult and tricky to understand concepts such as address allocations, pointers referring pointers and data structures containing pointers. Hence, drawing the physical structure and flow of pointers is considered to be a common learning practice to gain better clarity and avoid confusion when learning pointers. But, it is time consuming and tedious to draw the flow of pointers on paper while programming. To help programmers understand these variations in pointers, we propose PointerViz as a Google Chrome extension that displays the pictorial representation of selected code with pointers. We conducted a preliminary survey with 40 students from various universities and 83% of the users reported positive experience with the plugin.
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    A Design Methodology for Learning Analytics Information Systems: Informing Learning Analytics Development with Learning Design
    ( 2020-01-07) Nguyen, Andy ; Gardner, Lesley ; Sheridan, Don
    The paper motivates, presents and demonstrates a methodology for developing and evaluating learning analytics information systems (LAIS) to support teachers as learning designers. In recent years, there has been increasing emphasis on the benefits of learning analytics to support learning and teaching. Learning analytics can inform and guide teachers in the iterative design process of improving pedagogical practices. This conceptual study proposed a design approach for learning analytics information systems which considered the alignment between learning analytics and learning design activities. The conceptualization incorporated features from both learning analytics, learning design, and design science frameworks. The proposed development approach allows for rapid development and implementation of learning analytics for teachers as designers. The study attempted to close the loop between learning analytics and learning design. In essence, this paper informs both teachers and education technologists about the interrelationship between learning design and learning analytics.
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    Learning Analytics in the Flipped Classroom – Learning Dashboards from the Students' Perspective
    ( 2020-01-07) Droit, Alena ; Rieger, Bodo
    Blended learning courses offer the opportunity to collect large amounts of learning data that can help students to improve their performance. The presentation of learning data often takes place in the form of Learning Analytics dashboards, which are already in use at some universities. Students, who are the primary data providers and at the same time the main users, should be involved in the process of developing Learning Analytics dashboards from the beginning. Since there are only a few guidelines for designing these dashboards in literature, we conducted a study with 139 business and information systems students who, in addition to answering a questionnaire, also designed their dashboards with the help of a case study. The dashboard analysis provides detailed insights into the design of the functional and information scope, as well as the presentation of the data for Learning Analytics dashboards.
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    The Impact of Motivation and Strategy Use on Course Outcome in Digital Learning Environment - A Case Analysis of a Business School Course
    ( 2020-01-07) Esnaashari, Shadi ; Gardner, Lesley ; Rehm, Michael
    Using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) multiple times in an undergraduate business school course in a University in New Zealand, 188 students completed the questionnaire to explore how students’ motivation and strategy use changed as they progressed and how these constructs predict students’ course outcome. In contrast to other studies, our results showed varying levels of motivation as well as increasing strategy usage as the course progressed. Our exploratory analysis identified three subgroups within the class, each of which reported differently in terms of motivation and strategy use. From this analysis and course outcome data we infer how these finding may contribute to theory and classroom practice.
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    Mind the Gap: A Collaborative Competence E-learning Model between University and Industry
    ( 2020-01-07) Hattinger, Monika ; Eriksson, Kristina
    This article departure from the effects that inter-organizational collaboration brings for the participating partners, specifically from design-related activities of e-learning courses and co-production. The research focus is on critical factors for inter-organizational collaborative e-learning and co-production between university and industry. We describe the process of a six-year longitudinal collaborative action research project including six cases and three phases, initialization, implementation and dissemination. The analysis is conducted from a multi-stakeholder perspective; managers, teachers, and practitioners. Overall aim is to reach for a sustainable collaborative competence e-learning model (CCeM) that will increase industrial employees’ competences. Main contribution is that co-production of knowledge entails three levels of activities among actors; to have insight into the purposes and practices of others, the capacity to transform the problems of a practice and together build common knowledge and finally the capacity of mutually co-produce knowledge acted upon in practice towards transformations in the workplace.
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    Engagement Patterns of Participants in an Online Professional Development Programme: An Application of Mixture Modelling
    ( 2020-01-07) Deshmukh, Ketan ; Chand, Vijaya Sherry ; Shukla, Kathan ; Laha, Arnab K
    Unhindered communication capabilities, in the form of internet, led us to believe that the difficult goal of “Education for All” is within our grasps. Recent studies have shown mixed results for learning over the internet, indicating that we are still far away from our desired goal. Online environments provide freedom to large number of learners, to learn at their own pace. Understanding the various ways in which participants engage with online content could help explain the mixed outcomes. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study on engagement patterns of 4567 elementary school teachers, in an online professional development programme. Using mixture modelling techniques, we identified five latent profiles of online engagement and seven latent classes based on off-platform activities. We present our findings followed by discussion and implications for online courses.
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    An Optimization Model for Group Formation in Project-based Learning
    ( 2020-01-07) Holmgren, Johan ; Ghaffari, Zahra ; Mihailescu, Radu-Casian
    We propose an optimization model to tackle the problem of determining how projects are assigned to student groups based on a bidding procedure. In order to improve student experience in project-based learning we resort to actively involving them in a transparent and unbiased project allocation process. To evaluate our work, we collected information about the students' own views on how our approach influenced their level of learning and overall learning experience and provide a detailed analysis of the results. The results of our evaluation show that the large majority of students (i.e., 91%) increased or maintained their satisfaction ratings with the proposed procedure after the assignment was concluded, as compared to their attitude towards the process before the project assignment occurred.
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    The Good and the Bad. An Evaluation of Project-based Learning with Peer Assessment in a Large Class Context
    ( 2020-01-07) Kastner, Margit
    To overcome the negative consequences associated with large class sizes and to support students in developing the necessary competences (e.g., critical thinking, problem-solving) a marketing course has been redesigned by implementing, as a voluntary course part, project-based learning with peer assessment (PBL&PA). This study aims to evaluate students’ perception towards PBL&PA using an online-questionnaire and students’ learning achievement using final grades. Among the 260 students who filled out the questionnaire, 47% participated in PBL&PA. Although students’ participation was initially extrinsically motivated, students mainly experienced learning and social benefits. Parts of the technical implementation, however, were judged negatively and team aspects generated mixed feelings. Examining students’ grades at the final exam uncovered that students who did not participate in any of the offered active learning tasks performed poorest while students who used all activities (clicker and PBL&PA) were best. In conclusion, goals of the implementation were met and usage is recommended.
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    Integrating Learning Analytics to Measure Message Quality in Large Online Conversations
    ( 2020-01-07) Eryilmaz, Evren ; Thoms, Brian ; Ahmed, Zafor ; Sandhu, Avneet
    Research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) often employs content analysis as an approach to investigate message quality in asynchronous online discussions using systematic message-coding schemas. Although this approach helps researchers count the frequencies by which students engage in different socio-cognitive actions, it does not explain how students articulate their ideas in categorized messages. This study investigates the effects of a recommender system on the quality of students’ messages from voluminous discussions. We employ learning analytics to produce a quasi-quality index score for each message. Moreover, we examine the relationship between this score and the phases of a popular message-coding schema. Empirical findings show that a custom CSCL environment extended by a recommender system supports students to explore different viewpoints and modify interpretations with higher quasi-quality index scores than students assigned to the control software. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
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    FinCraft: Immersive Personalised Persuasive Serious Games for Financial Literacy Among Young Decision-Makers
    ( 2020-01-07) Rasco, Aldrich ; Chan, Johnny ; Peko, Gabrielle ; Sundaram, David
    FinCraft is an open source gaming platform to enhance financial literacy. Research has shown a growing concern for financial literacy and financial decision-making across several age groups and interventionist programme methods. However, very few focused on the youth demographic specifically. Fewer, considered fun and sustainable means of financial literacy enhancement. In a day and age of instant gratification, people gravitate towards familiar and engaging content. In this paper, we posit starting financial literacy enhancement early - during the teenage years of individuals, so secure saving and spending habits can be adopted prior to adult years and responsibility. Through gamification, FinCraft aims to bridge the familiarity and engagement gap that makes financial literacy, an unexplored, significant part of growing up. We propose various conceptual and system artefacts at the intersection of serious games and learning analytics for financial literacy.