Horizons, Volume 5

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    Front and Back Cover
    ( 2020-12-18)
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    Editor's Foreword and Students' Foreword
    ( 2020-12-18) Scally, Jayme
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    The Power of Puʻuhonua o Puʻuhuluhulu: Intersections of Gender and Justice Work on Mauna Kea
    ( 2020-12-18) Hamid, Sarah Michal
    To organize is to live and breathe the struggle of struggle. Kiaʻi on Mauna Kea, and across all of Hawaiʻi know this. Organizing is a line of labor that commands all of a person, their life, their genealogy, their love. I learned this from kiaʻi on Mauna a Wākea. While protecting the Mauna brings many lessons, its lessons are work. The way we work often shapes the way we understand the world. In a perfect world the kind of labor you do and the profit you make does not constrict you from life giving services and resources. Unfortunately, we do not live in a perfect world, in fact we live far from it. But, workers movement and justice movements at large seek to transform these harmful societal dynamics of labor. While wage labor or paid work is often examined with nuanced understandings of the intersections between gender, race etc, we often forget that these dynamics also play out through justice work, or activism. Justice movements often tend to replicate the very unhealthy power structures that they seek to destabilize and deconstruct. Movement building requires organization, and with organization often comes division of power. Without clear intentions and mechanisms to prevent oppressive power structures within justice work, the gendered element of justice work can, and does become harmful. Puʻuhonua o Puʻuhuluhulu on Mauna Kea currently represents a site of justice work where these power dynamics are taken into account, and are actually addressed.
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    Canberra, ACT's Renewable Energy Policy: A Review and Its Applications to Honolulu, Hawaiʻi
    ( 2020-12-18) Yuan, Eleanor
    This paper aims to identify lessons from Canberra, Australian Capital Territory’s (ACT) successful implementation of 100% renewable energy that apply to Honolulu, Hawai‘i’s current renewable energy policy and practices. ACT is the first territory in Australia to achieve 100% renewable energy. Similarly, Hawai‘i aims to be the first state in the United States to achieve this goal. The first part of the paper establishes critical components of a successful policy. An overview of Australia’s, the ACT’s and Hawai‘i’s attitudes and policies regarding renewable energy follows. Lastly, this paper evaluates the successes of the ACT’s policies against Hawai‘i’s current renewable energy status. The findings of this paper suggest further development of specific and intent-based policy plans for transparency, an increase of investment in large-scale utility clean energy generators, and a continued collaboration with other states to leverage support for clean energy culture beyond Hawai‘i.
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    A CRISPR Look at COVID-19
    ( 2020-12-18) Ching, Jolie ; Nakamura, Shane
    The largest pandemic in recent times -- novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) -- has caused economic shutdowns and social isolation on a global scale. Life as we know it has been placed on hold for the time being. Meanwhile, the scientific community worldwide is trying to understand COVID-19 biology and search for detection methods, prevention strategies, and treatments. Many researchers and biotech companies are turning to CRISPR, a cutting-edge advancement in biotechnology, to aid in developing methods for detection and finding a treatment for the virus. As a result, the need for unified regulation on CRISPR is more apparent than ever.
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    What a Name Stands For: Stanley Porteus
    ( 2020-12-18) Miki, Kaylee
    Social views on the relationship between psychology and race have evolved worldwide and in Hawai’i, since the time of Stanley Porteus, who researched during the height of the eugenics movement. In 1974, the University of Hawai’i named a building after Dr. Porteus to honor his achievements in the field of psychology. Research through the University’s archives and the library’s original copies of his works will be analyzed. Using these original works and documents, this paper will first evaluate why his contributions to the field of psychology were significant enough to justify the decision of the Board of Regents to name a building after him. The paper will then analyze how the changing views in the 1990’s on psychology and race fueled the backlash against the naming of Porteus Hall. Newspaper clippings from the period and the original documents outlining the naming and renaming of Porteus Hall will be evaluated. The unique setting of the University as an academic institution that has a culturally diverse student and faculty body in Hawai’i will be considered to evaluate why the building was renamed in 1998. The conclusion demonstrates that while Dr. Porteus made impactful academic contributions to the field of psychology, ultimately, the views he expressed, though in line with his time, were derogatory and critical of the ethnic minorities that make up a large portion of the University’s population, and a building at the University should not be named after him.
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    A Genetic Makeover: Motives for Self-Enhancement with CRISPR
    ( 2020-12-18) Liao, Lauryn
    Societal expectations brought on by social media, intelligence standards, and material measurements of success have shown to be a motivating factor in most peoples’ lives, governing many of their choices and decisions. Thus, with the proposition of a technology that could allow people to genetically enhance themselves to a certain extent, society is prompted with a conundrum concerning the regulation and usage of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). Currently, the definitions of genetic treatment versus genetic enhancement remain ambiguous and are determined on a case by case basis. This article attempts to analyze how societal expectations have impacted the debate on human genetic enhancement. It also evaluates the need for preventative or permissive regulations towards genetic self-enhancement.
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    Melody of Melancholy
    ( 2020-12-18) Murashige, Kelly
    This short piece tells the story of a school-aged, developmentally delayed child and her Papa. Her Papa’s love for music and his self-sacrificing spirit inspire her, but they also frustrate her, as she lives in a world that refuses to understand either one of them. After writing a story dedicated to my mother, I wanted to write one for my father. His passion for music and his willingness to give it up for a stable life have always struck me as tragic. I wanted to draw from his experiences but create a situation that emphasized just how much of an impact broken dreams and an ignorant world can have. I originally started writing this piece in the first-person perspective, but somewhere in the middle, “I” became “you.” When I caught the error, I considered changing everything back to first person. I ultimately realized that using second person helped the story to feel more personal. It is not just one person’s narrative; it is many people’s, and they often cannot tell their own stories. Fiction has always been a fantastic way to relate to and empathize with people different from ourselves. It has been my way of explaining my worldview to others and of learning how the people around me—or even people in faraway places—experience everyday life. Though I cannot say that this story is identical to my own, I have put bits and pieces of myself into this character. My hope is that, in writing this story, I can begin to show others the importance of familial love and unending compassion.
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    Elegy for an Ant
    ( 2020-12-18) Kop, Michaela
    There have been countless times throughout history and even in today's social and political environment in which those in places of prestige and influence have acted impulsively and without much consideration for others. This leads to the "death of the ant" or downfall of the common person all for selfish decisions disguised as leadership. My fellow ants, I urge you to decide carefully which people are worthy of our support, for the wrong ones may one day step on us.
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    Maybe a Walk Will Help
    ( 2020-12-18) Ruiz, Ellena Isabelle
    I investigate the way emotions shape perception through abstract art by bringing them out of the body and into paint. My canvases are life- size or larger to encapsulate the overwhelmingness of emotions. The size is also to allow marks to be intimate and the ability to manipulate my canvas with my whole body. Abstract work, personally, is the best way to express both scenes and emotions by allowing large color play and the freedom to create different scenarios or images based on the viewers’ perception. Using water and tar gel to get vastly different results that have similar transparent tendencies, I compare these to the different sexualities within the LGBTQ+ community. Paint handling allows for different characteristics to come from the color and I relate this to the inclusiveness that I want LGBTQ+ kids to feel. I create not only for myself, but for those young, queer, brown artists who want to create and have space for their art in the professional world and not have to fight for it.