Co-Development with Software and Business Engineering Frameworks and Methods

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    Spotlight on the Positives: How Do Information Technology Projects Achieve Cost Underruns?
    ( 2022-01-04) Alami, Adam ; Madsen, Christian ; Krancher, Oliver
    The Information Technology (IT) project literature has extensively studied cost overrun. But there is surprisingly little work on cost underrun. In this paper, we explore twelve IT projects that achieved cost underrun, using interviews and documents analysis. Our findings show that projects achieve cost underruns when they actively implement practices to enhance process efficiency. These practices are: Implementing a collaborative environment, budgetary control, capitalizing on previous knowledge, continuous learning during the project, and accommodating uncertainty. Projects also encounter conditions that contribute directly to cost underrun, like scope reduction and savings in spending. Our key contribution lies in uncovering, based on a unique sample, how a set of specific practices can lead to cost underrun.
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    Selection, Adaption and Use of IS and Business Development Methods in Digitalization Projects
    ( 2022-01-04) Lagstedt, Altti ; Dahlberg, Tomi ; Kiselev, Caroline ; Kautz, Tobias
    As digitalization has a significant impact on all industries, it is important to examine how digitalization methods are selected and applied. For that, we conducted two-step research: first, a survey examining how the connection of IT and digital business management affects business development management, followed by digitalization project participant interviews. We can conclude that method selection is done rarely, and even if it is done, project participants are not always aware of it. In addition, although business development objectives were largely emphasized, business development methods were scarce. Instead of deploying systematic business development, it was easily left as a vague part of IS development. Quite often, projects (willingly or accidentally) utilized some kind of hybrid method, but its elements were not combined systematically. As one result, we propose a new kind of hybrid method evaluation tool to be used in the method selection phase.
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    Leveraging Service Design by bridging business and process modeling
    ( 2022-01-04) Pérez Blanco, Francisco Javier ; Vara, Juan Manuel ; Gómez, Cristian ; De Castro, Valeria ; Marcos, Esperanza
    There are currently several techniques or notations for business and process modeling that allow the idea of business to be explored in greater or less detail, while simultaneously helping to understand, conceptualize and represent the services that add value to an organization. These techniques have similarities and differences but are in many cases complementary. However, there is no solution that allows working with them in an integrated manner, shortening the distance between business and process modeling areas. All this given, this paper introduces the latest functionalities incorporated in a modeling environment for service design that currently supports 5 different notations (Business Model Canvas, e3value, Service Blueprint, Process Chain Network and BPMN) as well the partial generation of models from a model elaborated with a different notation along with the corresponding relations model.
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    Calculating the Costs of Inner Source Collaboration by Computing the Time Worked
    ( 2022-01-04) Buchner, Stefan ; Riehle, Dirk
    A key part of taxation, controlling, and management of international collaborative programming workflows is determining the costs of a supplied software artifact. The OECD suggests the use of the Cost Plus method for calculating these costs. However, in the past, this method has been implemented using only coarse-grain data from the costs of whole organizational units. Due to the move to inner source software development, we need a much more fine-grain solution for computing the detailed time spent on programming specific components. This is necessary, because a more accurate work time distribution is required to fulfill the fiscal and administrative challenges posed by collaborating across organizational boundaries. In this article, we present a novel method to determine the time spent on an individual code contribution (commit) to a software component for use within cost calculation, especially for taxation purposes. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by application to a real-world data set gathered at a large multi-national corporation. We evaluate our work through feedback received from this corporation and from the German Ministry of Finance.
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