Volume 43 - December 2011 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    A New State Record for the Whitefly Aleuroglandulus subtilis Bondar in Hawaii
    ( 2011-12-12) Nagamine, Walter T. ; Garcia, Janis N.
    A whitefly, reported as new to Hawaii during 2006, was tentatively identified as Aleuroglandulus sp. prob. subtilis. A second discovery in 2011 was confirmed as Aleuroglandulus subtilis Bondar (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).
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    Fiorinia phantasma Cockerell and Robinson (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), an Armored Scale Pest New to Hawaii
    ( 2011-12-12) Garcia, Janis N.
    A diaspidid species new to both Hawaii and the Western Hemisphere is confirmed. Fiorinia phantasma Cockerell and Robinson, a new state record, is a polyphagous species and pest of many ornamental plants in Hawaii.
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    First Report of Trichogramma achaeae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from Hawaii
    ( 2011-12-09) Wright, Mark G. ; Stouthamer, Richard
    Trichogramma achaeae is reported from Oahu and Kauai. This egg parasitoid was first found parasitizing eggs of Helicoverpa zea on corn plants on Oahu. It was subsequently reared from on Lycaenidae and Noctuidae collected from Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae respectively, on Kauai.
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    Pangaeus bilineatus (Say), a Burrowing Bug New to Hawaii
    ( 2011-12-09) Garcia, Janis N.
    A burrowing bug, new to Hawaii, is noted. Collections of Pangaeus bilineatus are confirmed as a new state record for Hawaii.
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    Capture of Bactrocera Males (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Parapheromone-Baited Traps: Performance of Solid Dispensers with Different Loadings of Attractants and Toxicant
    ( 2011-12-09) Shelly, Todd E. ; Kurashima, Rick S. ; Nishimoto, Jon I.
    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are important agricultural pests of the Pacific region. Detection of these species relies on traps baited with male-specific attractants, namely cue lure for B. cucurbitae and methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. At present, these lures (plus naled, an insecticide) are applied in liquid form, although this procedure is time-consuming, and naled as well as methyl eugenol may pose human health risks. Recent field tests have shown that traps baited with a solid formulation (termed a wafer) that contains both lures (plus DDVP, an insecticide) capture as many or even more Bactrocera males than traps with the standard liquid lures. However, these previous studies used relatively large wafers, which would likely be inadequate for large-scale trapping programs, as fitting them into traps was inconvenient and time-consuming. The purpose of the present study was to compare captures of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis males in traps baited with liquids versus traps baited with different-sized wafers, which also contained different loadings of the male lures. Based on a series of field tests, we found that traps with a slightly smaller (medium-sized) wafer, which is more easily inserted and removed from the traps, performed as well or better than traps with the standard liquid lures or the original large-sized wafer. In addition, field tests with medium wafers showed that the DDVP level could be halved without any loss of trap effectiveness.
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    Egg Parasitism by Trissolcus basalis (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in Architecturally Varied Habitats, and Observations on Parasitism in Macadamia Nut Orchards and Other Habitats Following Augmentative Release.
    ( 2011-12-09) Wright, Mark G. ; Diez, Joselito M.
    The ability of T. basalis to locate and parasitize Nezara viridula eggs was investigated in habitats with different architectures (monocot, broad leaf shrubs, mixed weeds). Trissolcus basalis demonstrated a significant preference for searching in weedy habitats dominated by Crotalaria pallida. Dispersal and host utilization efficiency of T. basalis was quantified in macadamia orchards on trees and weeds, and in weed- infested pastures. Parasitism of N. viridula eggs in macadamia nut orchards on trees and weeds was low. In weedy pasture the effects of predation (42% of eggs destroyed) and parasitism (~16% of eggs destroyed) appeared to be greater than in orchards. Quantification of the level of indispensable mortality contributed by T. basalis and predatory insects is needed. While augmentative release of T. basalis in macadamia nut orchards shows little potential for suppression of N. viridula, releases in weedy habitats adjacent to orchards may contribute to reducing numbers of N. viridula moving into orchards from surrounding habitat by increasing mortality at the egg stage. The economics of implementing augmentative releases of T. basalis in macadamia nut production will likely render augmentative release strategies impractical.
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    Survey of Immature Mosquito Predators from Taro Fields on the Island of Kauai, Hawaii
    ( 2011-12-09) Hasty, Jeomhee Mun ; Yang, Pingjun
    A survey of predators of immature mosquitoes was conducted on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, in taro fields, major larval mosquito habitat of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The survey consisted of examinations of samples from taro field water in two series: monthly at five locations and weekly at two of the same five locations. Copepods (Macrocyclops albidus Jurine), mosquito eating fish (Gambusia affinis Baird and Girard and Poecilia reticulata Peters) and aquatic insects, including backswimmers (Buenoa pallipes Fabricius) and larvae of Odonata spp., were the most-commonly observed predators. While copepods were observed at all locations, backswimmers and mosquito fish were variably present. Copepod populations from all locations fluctuated during the surveys. For the two sites sampled on a weekly basis, adult mosquito counts were higher at Lihue (65.60 per gravid-trap-day) than at Hanapepe (39.91) while larvae were more frequently present at Hanapepe (79% of weeks) than Lihue (33%). There was no clear relationship at these sites between the relative abundance of the most frequently collected mosquito-feeding insects, copepods, and numbers of adult mosquitoes trapped.
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    Weathering Rate of Rubber Septa–Impregnated Male Sex Pheromone of Sweetpotato Weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), in East Hawaii
    ( 2011-12-09) McQuate, Grant T.
    In recent years, sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, production in Hawaii has been increasing, reaching 243 harvested ha, with a total production of 3.76 million kg in 2009. Sweetpotato production in Hawaii is hindered by three major quarantine pests, for which only one, the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), has an identified sex pheromone, (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate, that has been deployed in traps for monitoring and suppression of field populations. The longevity of a commercial source of this sex attractant was tested under field conditions on the Hamakua Coast on the island of Hawaii. Based on a linear regression developed from weevil catch results versus weeks of aging, catch dropped to 50% of the catch of unweathered lure at 13.2 weeks, at a lower elevation site, and at 9.0 weeks, at a higher elevation, windier site. Based on these results, lures in traps should be replaced every 9 weeks to maintain at least 50% of maximum trap catch. Further research is needed to integrate pheromone-baited traps for sweetpotato weevil into a pest management system for sweetpotato pests in Hawaii. Suppression of sweetpotato weevil populations may be enhanced by increasing pheromone concentration in traps.
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    Attraction of Pest Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Crambidae) to Floral Lures on the Island of Hawaii
    ( 2011-12-09) Landolt, Peter ; Jang, Eric ; Carvalho, Lori ; Pogue, Michael
    Traps baited with floral chemicals on the island of Hawaii captured several pest moth species. Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) (green garden looper), Au- tographa biloba (Doubleday) (bi-lobed looper), and Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth) (true armyworm), all Noctuidae, as well as Hymenia recurvalis (L.) (beet webworm), a Crambidae, were trapped with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA). There was no response by moths to β-myrcene (BM), methyl salicylate (MS), cis-jasmone (CJ), methyl-2-methoxy benzoate (MMB), 2-phenylethanol (2PE), or linalool (LIN) when these chemicals were tested singly. When other floral chemicals were presented in traps with PAA, numbers of C. eriosoma captured were increased by BM, MS, 2PE or MMB. Numbers of A. biloba and Peridroma saucia (Hübner) (variegated cutworm) were increased by including BM with PAA in traps. Numbers of M. unipuncta were increased by BM or 2PE, and numbers of H. recurvalis were increased by MMB or LIN, presented with PAA. Both sexes of these five species of moths were trapped with floral females captured were mated, and many females possessed mature eggs.
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