Capture of Bactrocera Males (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Parapheromone-Baited Traps: Performance of Solid Dispensers with Different Loadings of Attractants and Toxicant

Date
2011-12-09
Authors
Shelly, Todd E.
Kurashima, Rick S.
Nishimoto, Jon I.
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Abstract
Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are important agricultural pests of the Pacific region. Detection of these species relies on traps baited with male-specific attractants, namely cue lure for B. cucurbitae and methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. At present, these lures (plus naled, an insecticide) are applied in liquid form, although this procedure is time-consuming, and naled as well as methyl eugenol may pose human health risks. Recent field tests have shown that traps baited with a solid formulation (termed a wafer) that contains both lures (plus DDVP, an insecticide) capture as many or even more Bactrocera males than traps with the standard liquid lures. However, these previous studies used relatively large wafers, which would likely be inadequate for large-scale trapping programs, as fitting them into traps was inconvenient and time-consuming. The purpose of the present study was to compare captures of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis males in traps baited with liquids versus traps baited with different-sized wafers, which also contained different loadings of the male lures. Based on a series of field tests, we found that traps with a slightly smaller (medium-sized) wafer, which is more easily inserted and removed from the traps, performed as well or better than traps with the standard liquid lures or the original large-sized wafer. In addition, field tests with medium wafers showed that the DDVP level could be halved without any loss of trap effectiveness.
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Tephritidae, detection, male lures, trapping
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16 pages
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