Pacific Science Volume 38, Number 2, 1984

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    38:2 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04)
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    Sporochnus dotyi sp. nov. (Sporochnales, Phaeophyta), a Brown Alga from Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Brostoff, William N.
    Sporo chnus dotyi sp. nov. is described based on two collections made in Hawaii. It differs from other Sporochnus species in having nonbranched fertile filaments and in the comparatively large size and conspicuous nature of the bases of the apical tufts. A key to the world's species of Sporochnus is presented to elucidate the unique features of this new species.
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    Metabolic Rate of Laysan Albatross and Bonin Petrel Chicks on Midway Atoll
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Grant, Gilbert S. ; Whittow, G Causey
    The resting metabolic rates of Laysan albatross and Bonin petrel chicks of known age were measured on Midway Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. The mass-specific metabolism peaked at hatching and then declined to adult levels in Laysan albatross nestlings. The mass specific metabolism of hatchling Bonin petrels was similar to that of adults, but it tripled shortly after hatching. Fasting and feeding episodes affected day-to-day changes in petrel chick metabolism.
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    Bird Specimens from American Samoa
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Banks, Richard C.
    About 1300 specimens of birds have been taken on the seven islands that constitute American Samoa in the southwestern Pacific Ocean; about 1200 specimens representing 43 species were examined. Information on the biology of these species, especially annual cycles of breeding and molt, is presented to the extent that it can be determined from these specimens and the associated data. Most of the specimens were taken in only a few months of the calendar year, and the annual cycle remains incompletely known even for those few species with large samples of specimens. Taxonomic comments are given for a few species, and the extensive variability in Halcyon chloris pealei is discussed.
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    A Contribution to the Trophic Biology of the Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans Lacepede, 1802) in Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Brock, Richard E.
    A study of the trophic biology of 87 blue marlin caught in Hawaiian waters indicates that these opportunistic predators consume a diverse array of prey. The data suggest that the diet of blue marlin is influenced by the locality of capture. Thus, surface (troll)-caught blue marlin from near the Hawaiian Islands consume numerous larvae, postlarvae, and juveniles of inshore species, prey relatively rare in marlin taken on the high seas. Volumetrically, these inshore forms are of little consequence and probably contribute little to the energy requirements of blue marlin. As shown in other studies, small tunas are the single most important component of Hawaiian blue marlin diets.
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    Picoplankton Growth Rates in Subtropical Hawaiian Embayments
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Bienfang, Paul K. ; Morales, Luis ; Klein, Karen ; Takahashi, Masayuki
    The size structure of phytoplankton biomass and productivity and the specific growth rates (m) of the picoplankton (i.e., < 3mm fraction) were examined in six Hawaiian embayments. The portion of total phytoplankton chlorophyll present in the < 10 mm and < 3 mm fractions ranged from 38 to 62 percent and 16 to 52 percent, respectively. Picoplankton accounted for between 34 and 63 percent of total community photosynthesis. Picoplankton growth rates ranged from 0.056 to 0.202/h (0.97 to 3.62 doublings/day). The rapid growth rates in these aquatic environments probably result from inputs of terrestrially derived nutrients; the m values for the picoplankton fraction are thought to represent upper limits for growth rates of the total population.
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    Redescription of the Pufferfish Torquigener brevipinnis (Regan) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), with Description of a New Species of Torquigener from Indonesia
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Hardy, Graham S.
    Torquigener brevipinnis (Regan) is redescribed. The species differs from the very similar T. flavima culosus Hardy and Randall primarily in color, having clearly defined whitish bands on the side of the head, a solid lateral stripe along the body, and fewer vertical bands on the caudal fin. Torquig ener gloerfelti n. sp. is described from four specimens from Indonesian waters. It differs from T. altipinnis (Ogilby) in color pattern and in the higher number of spine s that overlap the anterior margin of the gill opening, and from T. vicinus Whitley in having a larger eye diameter and shorter caudal peduncle length.
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    A Note on the Occurrence of the Gold Spot Herring, Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus (Ruppell) in Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Baldwin, Wayne J.
    The occurrence of the gold spot herring, Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus, is reported for Hawaii from the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Lanai. This species was first collected in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, in 1975, and appears to have largely replaced the Marquesan sardine, Sardin ella marquesensis, introduced to Hawaii in the 1950s. Notes on the separation of the gold spot herring from other Hawaiian clupeids are provided in addition to a comparison of the Hawaiian specimens with specimens of gold spot herring from Red Sea and tropical Pacific localities.
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    Distribution and Ecology of Shallow-Water Crinoids at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, with an Annotated Checklist of Their Symbionts
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Zmarzly, D.L.
    Six species of comatulid crinoids were found to inhabit coral reefs between depths of 3 and 36m at Enewetak Atoll , Marshall Islands. These species were Eudiocrinus tenuissimus, Dorometra nana, Comaster gracilis, Comanthus bennetti, Comanthus parvicirrus, and Comanthina schlegeli. The first four species were previously recorded from other atolls in the Marshall Islands, but Comanthus bennetti was the only species reported from Enewetak. Comanthus parvicirrus and Comanthina schlegeli have not been previously recorded for the area . Nine shallow-water species are now known from the Marshall Islands, compared to 2I species from the Palau Archipelago and 7from Guam. At Enewetak, abundance and diversity of crinoids were greatest at sites with exposure to regular current flow, and depth zonation of species was ap- . parent. Three of the species at Enewetak were polychromatic; color varieties found at Enewetak are compared to those documented for conspecifics at other Indo-Pacific locations. Spatial distribution patterns and relative abundances of the noncryptic crinoids at three sites remained nearly constant over a half-year period. No mortality or recruitment was observed in the monitored populations. Eighteen species of macro-invertebrates were found in association with the crinoids: 3 species of gastropod mollusks, 3 species of myzostomid worms, 1 species of scaleworm, 1 species of copepod, and 10 species of decapod crustaceans.
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    The Extinction of Endemic Species by a Program of Biological Control
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-04) Clarke, Bryan ; Murray, James ; Johnson, Michael S.
    Land snails of the genus Partula, inhabiting the high islands of the Pacific Ocean, have provided exceptional opportunities for studies oil the origin and differentiation of species: The endemic taxa of Moorea, in French Polynesia, have been particularly well studied. In an attempt to control the numbers of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, which is an agricultural pest, a carnivorous snail, Euglandina rosea; has been introduced into Moorea. It is spreading across the island at the rate of about 1.2 km per year, eliminating the endemic Partula. One species is already extinct in the wild ; and extrapolating the rate of spread of Ezigltmdina , it is expected that all the remaining taxa (possibly excepting P. exigua) will be eliminated by 1986-1987. Euglandina has been introduced into many other oceanic . islands, and it appears that more than a hundred endemic species are at risk . These observations point to a serious danger in programs of " biological control. "
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