Volume 39 - December 2007 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Reports from the 2005 Centennial Conference of the Hawaiian Entomological Society
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Wright, Mark G. ; Rubinoff, Daniel ; Almeida, Rodrigo P.P. ; Wright, Mark
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    Exploits of some famous entomologists of the Hawaiian Entomological Society.
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Easton, Emmett R.
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    Efficacy of localized chemical treatments for Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in naturally infested lumber.
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Woodrow, R Joseph ; Grace, J Kenneth
    Localized injection of insecticides into termite galleries in infested wood represents an alternative to whole-structure fumigation for drywood termite control. The efficacy of this method is limited, however, by the use of repellant insecticides and the difficulty of locating drywood termite colonies. The present study addressed both issues by the use of an experimental acoustic emissions (AE) detector to assist in location of termite infestations in naturally infested shipping pallets, and application of the non-repellant insecticide spinosad (Dow AgroSciences). Chlorpyrifos 0.5% aerosol, 15% aqueous disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), resmethrin 0.25% aerosol, distilled water (control) and two treatments of 0.5% spinosad suspension concentrate (one with the injection site based on visual evidence and the other on acoustic evidence) were injected into boards in hardwood shipping pallets naturally infested with the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker. Termite mortality was greatest with spinosad treatments, although variability was high due to the continued difficulty of identifying and treating all separate areas of infestation in the boards.
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    Residential perimeter treatment trials in Hawaii with Thiamethoxam, Termidor, and Premise.
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Yates, Julian R. III
    Pre-1988 strategies for termiticide treatment of soil to prevent subterranean termite infestation in residential structures included application of organochlorine insecticides beneath concrete slabs through drilled holes at more than 2-foot intervals along the interior of perimeter and dividing walls. Post-1988 soil termiticides included organophosphates and pyrethroids. These less forgiving insecticides forced the pest control industry to change their treatment methods because of numerous call-backs that required re-treatments. Drill hole spacing through concrete slabs decreased to 1-foot intervals and exterior perimeter treatments were added to the management regime. With the advent of new non-repellent soil treatment termiticides, chemical manufacturers of these insecticides have devised a less intrusive treatment protocol that includes the remedial treatment of all known live infestations within the structure and a perimeter-only treatment of soil. For post-on-pier construction the perimeter of all piers is included in the treatment strategy. Results of field trials with three non-repellent termiticides (Thiamethoxam, Termidor, and Premise) are described.
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    Behavioral response of the Formosan subterranean termite to borate-treated wood.
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Campora, Cory E. ; Grace, J Kenneth
    Foragers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were allowed to tunnel in two dimensional, sand filled arenas containing Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) wafers pressure treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) to an average retention of 1.77% BAE on one side of each arena, and untreated wafers of Douglas-fir on the other side. Arenas were established both in the laboratory and in the field. Initial tunnel formation was unaffected by the presence of borate-treated wood. Avoidance of borate-treated wood developed after ca. 3–5 days. Termites did not avoid borate-treated wood as a result of necrophobic behavior. Termite responses when the locations of the treated and untreated wafers were switched within the arenas indicated that the delayed avoidance was related to the location of the treated wood rather than to recognition of the chemical treatment.
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    Community education for better termite control in Hawaii.
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Grace, J Kenneth ; Yates, Julian R. III ; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria ; Lillich, Georgina
    We describe a program initiated in fall 2001 in Hawaii’s public schools to increase both student and community awareness and knowledge of effective termite prevention and management. Program staff spend approximately 15 hours in the classroom, with an additional 15 hours of teacher follow-up; and implement progressively more sophisticated curricula tailored to each grade level and meeting state standards for science instruction, culminating in an activity in which students share their knowledge with the greater community. Teachers may earn professional development credits by participation in a workshop consisting of 20 hours of training and 45 hours of classroom implementation. As of spring 2005, over 50 teachers in over 30 schools had participated in the program, directly addressing over 2000 public school students. Adult education classes are also offered in conjunction with the classroom program, and attendance at these classes has increased four-fold since inception of the program. Steps to create a sustainable statewide program are described.
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    Bugs in bugs: the microbial diversity of the termite gut.
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Husseneder, Claudia ; Wise, Billy R. ; Higashiguchi, Dennis T.
    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), is dependent on its microbial gut community. The gut flora consists of three species of protists and an unknown number of bacteria species, which play a key role in physiology, nutrition and gut ecology of the termite host. Because C. formosanus depends on its gut flora for survival, alternative termite control strategies could be devised using the gut flora of termites as tools and targets for termite control. However, before such strategies can be developed, detailed knowledge about the microbial diversity in the termite gut is sorely needed. In this study, we used culture-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing in conjunction with classical culture methods to describe the microbial diversity in the gut of C. formosanus.
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    Rearing Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Harris, Ernest J. ; Bautista, Renato C. ; Vargas, Roger I. ; Jang, Eric B.
    In Hawaii, the egg-larval parasitoid Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan)(= Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenotera: Braconidae) is the most effective parasitoid of its preferred host the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae). Other Hymenopterous parasitoid species introduced into Hawaii still exist but vary considerably in their distribution and effectiveness as biological control agents. Based on field observations of F. arisanus parasitizing medfly in coffee and oriental fruit fly in guava, we postulated that a strain of F. arisanus could be selected in the laboratory to be reared exclusively on medfly. We report the results of these studies.
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    Fruit flies and their impact on agriculture in Hawaii.
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) Jang, Eric B.
    Tephritid fruit flies were among the early invasive insects to the Hawaiian Islands. These agricultural pests have had a major impact on Hawaii’s agriculture, reducing the types, quantities and quality of agricultural products grown on the islands, increasing pesticide use and reducing trade of fruit fly host products. Reduction in production of both sugar cane and pineapple, two non-fruit fly host crops over the last 10–15 years has renewed interest in diversified agriculture in the state and prompted renewed interest in fruit fly control programs statewide. Over the last 90 years, USDA has had a major research role in defining, discovering and implementing technology to detect and control these pests in Hawaii, the U.S. mainland and worldwide. The Hawaii Areawide fruit fly integrated pest management program (HAW-FLYPM), a USDA-ARS funded partnership between ARS, University of Hawaii and Hawaii State Department of Agriculture has recently demonstrated that these pest fruit flies could be controlled using IPM technologies. The success of the program has prompted state and federal agencies to reconsider if Hawaii could further expand their diversified agriculture using such an approach.
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    Population biology and prospects for suppression of the solanaceous fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2007-12) McQuate, Grant T. ; Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H. ; Peck, Steven L.
    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly native to South and Southeast Asia. First detected in Hawaii in 1983, it primarily infests fruits of solanaceous plants but has also been found to infest fruits of some species of cucurbitaceous plants in Hawaii. Because it has been known in Hawaii for a much shorter period of time than the other three introduced tephritid fruit flies of economic importance, there has been much less opportunity to study its basic biology and ecology. One area not yet sufficiently understood is the population ecology of this species. Here, we report on the population levels of B. latifrons as they relate to turkeyberry (Solanum torvum Sw) phenology in a cattle pasture with abundant turkeyberry patches in the vicinity of Haiku, Maui.