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    Research on Housing Planning Development Design in Mountainous Area: Difference between China and Hawaii
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Zeng, Shun ; Meder, Stephen ; Architecture
    With the rapid development of urbanization in China, more and more houses are being put up; however, the land resources available are quite limited. As a result, the problem of residential development has become a contradiction between man and land. Owing to the feature of this development situation, and the fact that the majority of land resources are in the form of mountains or hills, people have to consider how to develop mountainous areas to increase the living space. However, in the process of building mountainous residential buildings, the protection of land and environmental resources is often neglected due to the pursuit of the maximization of commodity interests and the large demolition and construction of land resources in mountainous areas, which result in the loss of land resources and the occurrence of various consequent natural disasters. Therefore, the author of this dissertation takes the opportunity of this dualdegree training program between Tongji University and the University of Hawaii, compares the similarities and differences of the development of residential house between China and Hawaii, and draws vantages and advantages from mountainous or hillside residential development in Hawaii to explore how to solve and improve the development of China’s domestic mountainous residential houses and the contradiction between man and land to provide guidance for the sustainable construction of new rural housing in mountainous areas by examining the characteristics and ideas of mountainous and hillside houses of development in Hawaii. This present thesis is divided into eight chapters. Chapter One serves as the introduction, which mainly introduces the background, purpose and significance of the research. Chapter Two presents the related theoretical research, which mainly discusses related domestic and foreign theoretical research on the use and development of mountainous areas and mountain cities from all ages, and makes a detailed introduction to the contents of theoretical research based on the theories of mountainous residential settlements. Chapter Three, the Historical Development of the Mountainous Residences in Hawaii and Mainland China, focuses on and compares the characteristics of the historical development of the mountainous residential areas and the historical process of the use of mountainous areas in the United States and China, and compares the differences between the two regions through the perspectives of residential layout model, courtyard and public space as well as road development, and concludes that there is a fundamental similarity between them, namely, mountainous areas were by no means easy to reach before there emerged powered means of transport. Chapter Four, the Modern Planning Development of the Mountainous Residences in Hawaii and the Development of Domestic Modern Mountainous Residences, focuses on and compares the planning characteristics and mountain utilization features in the development of modern mountainous residential areas in Hawaii, the United States and in China to find out the differences and draw the surface similarities in the use of cluster layout model in mountainous areas by means of progressive land use mechanism and planned construction modes. Chapter Five, a Comparison of the Design Norms for Mountain Residential Buildings in Hawaii and in China, mainly studies the classification as well as planning and designing norms of the residential lands in Hawaii and China, summarizes several typical directions to compare their difference and reaches the conclusion that China can learn and benefit from some norms in Hawaii. Chapter Six, A Case Study of the Practices and Characteristics of Sloping Land and Mountainous Residences in Oahu Region, Hawaii, summarizes the characteristics and features of the planning and construction of the two categories of mountainous and hillside residential areas in Hawaii. Chapter Seven, the Planning and Design of Mountainous Residential Buildings in FengGang Township, completes the design of renewal, mainly targeted at Mainland China’s current mountainous residential situation to provide innovative tips and renewal programs for the planning and design of China’s mountainous and hillside residential areas. Chapter Eight, Conclusion and Prospects, puts forward three guiding opinions for the sustainable development planning model of the new type of mountainous and hillside residences in China, looking forward to further and more detailed research in the future. The whole thesis illustrates the author’s reflections on the comparison of mountainous and hillside residential buildings between Hawaii and Mainland China and the consequent conclusions. Due to the limit of time and the limited vision of the author, there is still some room to be desired.
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    The Continuing of Organicism: An Enviro-organic Form Integrating to the Built Environment
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Tran, Duc ; Rockwood, David ; Architecture
    Humans have engaged nature as an ideal paradigm of form and function since time immemorial. Within the organic paradigm, architecture may be seen to constitute an organic relationship with nature in any climatic, cultural and social condition. Though often rejected in canonical modern architecture, organic forms have been manifested, in various forms, and with different purposes. Recently, some modern organic movements have emerged, such as those following principles of biomorphic form and biomimicry. Unfortunately, these movements often fail to more fully embrace organicism in the totality and depth of their relationship to the natural. Following D‘Arcy Thompson‘s On Growth and Form, this research aims at uncovering the key attributes of natural form, in order to allow the design of enviro-organic form. Such form is defined as one that opens to the natural world, facilitating the making of architecture that sustains human life and nature today and in the future. In order to carry this out, the research offers graphic and analytic tools that help aid understanding into what organic architecture is, and how we can undertake a design process leading to enviro-organic form. The research concentrates on the analogies between architectural form and natural forms. The outcomes are, to paraphrase D‘Arcy Thompson, explained by the, “equilibrium resulting from the interaction or balance of forces.” Natural forms result from the fitness of the resolution of inside and outside living forces. Similarly, architectural organic form, as embodied in indigenous or vernacular architecture, result from integrating environmental and socio-cultural forces. Because architecture must adapt to cultural and social changes, human built environments are argued to be functionally more complex than those made by animals, as seen for example in a bird-nest, spider-web, or ant-hill. Since vernacular architecture is largely shaped by instinct, and in response to specific local place and culture, vernacular forms are not typically suited to be applied directly to the needs of contemporary culture. Geometry is proposed as the medium for historical examination of the incidental analogy between nature and organic architecture, for the rational fitness of integrating between natural principles and architecture disciplines, and for the selective transformation of enviro-organic forms that promise to more fully integrate the works of humans into the natural environment.
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    Architecture of Afterlife: Future Cemetery in Metropolis
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Song, Shiyu ; Noe, Joyce ; Architecture
    Do you believe soul never dies? Do you believe in afterlife? Think but do not answer. How do you remember a loved one who passed away? How would you like to remember a loved one who has passed away? Think but do not answer. Life and Death presents an eternal topic for human beings to study. Cemeteries, human being’s last stop and final dwellings, is the primary type of funerary architecture. Contemporary Cemetery is facing a severe challenge, namely the shortage of burial space, especially in Metropolis such as London, Tokyo, Hong Kong, and etc. This severe dearth of permanent burial grounds, coupled with the high cost of rental ash holding agencies has struck a near fatal blow to the contemporary cemetery development. In my opinion, the options for future cemeteries are either change, shrink or disappear. This doctor dissertation will mainly discuss the major problems of the conventional and contemporary cemetery and use the latest relevance case studies to explore and propose design guidelines for future cemetery design. The design research chapter will show an example of how to apply these guidelines into the architecture project in order to make the future cemetery carry on the culture and spirit aspect along with innovative technologies.
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    Aerial Ropeway Transit as a Catalyst for Sustainable Urban Growth in Honolulu
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Simpson, Arthur ; Rockwood, David ; Architecture
    Oahu’s transportation infrastructure is one of the most vital components of its built environment, providing passage for social, cultural, and economic exchange. However, current patterns of urbanization have led to an auto-centric landscape, limiting the development of people-centered communities. And, as both population and road congestion have continued to swell, the existing transportation network has struggled to provide fluid and direct access to critical urban nodes, further leading Oʻahu towards unsustainable growth. Current mitigation strategies propose to strengthen Oahu’s transit network by transitioning people from their automobiles to a more transit-oriented lifestyle by way of a new rail transit system and transit oriented development policy. While the rail project does have the potential to positively redirect Oahu’s urban development, its existing route terminates at Ala Moana Shopping Center, leaving several critical urban locations disconnected from the project’s sustainable development strategies. It has been projected that the future Ala Moana Rail Station will have 22,610 people exiting and entering the station daily–a majority of whom are expected to travel eastward of Ala Moana. In addressing the disconnection, this research proposes to integrate aerial ropeway transit as a new mode of public transportation, supporting more livable, connected communities beyond the rail terminus. These advantages include lower operating costs, smaller construction footprints, greater route flexibility, and a more engaging rider experience. A literature review, based on O’ahu’s sustainable development and transportation strategies, is used to gain thorough understanding of the relationships between transportation and development, in addition to constructing a framework that proposes appropriate route alignments connecting Waikiki, UH Manoa, and Kaimuki to the Ala Moana Rail Terminal. Furthermore, a site analysis and various case studies are used to further support the system’s potential to catalyze sustainable growth by increasing mobility and access between urban destinations. Universally, ART is still a relatively new method for providing Oahu’s transportation infrastructure is one of the most vital components of its built environment, providing passage for social, cultural, and economic exchange. However, current patterns of urbanization have led to an auto-centric landscape, limiting the development of people-centered communities. And, as both population and road congestion have continued to swell, the existing transportation network has struggled to provide fluid and direct access to critical urban nodes, further leading Oʻahu towards unsustainable growth.
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    Decision Support System for Development of Current and Future Accessory Dwelling Units: A Bottom-up Approach to Affordable Housing
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Simafranca, Christian ; Park, Hyoung-June ; Architecture
    In 2015 the state passed Ordinance 15-41 which allowed homeowners to develop Accessory Dwelling Units (ADUs), however, Hawai`i homeowners remain uninformed and ill-equipped in the means to develop and design an ADU. In acting as a developer the homeowner needs a system that can assist them in an ADU development project. This research develops an ADU Decision Support System which identifies a step-by-step procedure to generate a conceptual design for an ADU in a normative fashion. Furthermore, the support system provides the homeowner with a means to assess and modify their design before engaging a design professional. As a proactive measure, the system provides future considerations regarding wastewater, transportation, energy, and construction. Lastly, the support system has the potential for expansion to a web interface connecting willing and able ADU developers to eager design professionals. By informing and empowering the homeowner, this research can address statewide affordable housing issues.
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    Water Efficiency, Conservation and Reuse for Hokulani Elementary School
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Shigano, Raymie ; Meder, Stephen ; Architecture
    In Hawaii and around the world, urbanization has led to an increase in water usage around the world. As we begin to face issues such as climate change and sea level rise in Hawaii, the need to conserve water resources becomes increasingly important. Although we live on an island surrounded by water, we still face water issues and must begin to make changes in order to conserve the resources that we have. Over the coming years, Hawaii will face water problems associated with scarcity, pollution, climate change as well sea level rise. This paper investigates water efficiency, water conservation and water reuse to produce a list of strategies that can be used to help and guide administrators, designers, and architects to choosing the right water reduction strategies for their project. In addition, the paper also provides a set of guidelines that can be applied to educational institutions in Hawaii. These guidelines set water reduction goals and list strategies for reaching these goals. Two case studies are analyzed and used to demonstrate how these water reduction strategies are used by other school in Hawaii. The design portion of the paper focuses on the redesign of Hokulani Elementary School. The design analyzes water use and implements water reduction strategies such as water efficient fixtures as well as low impact development strategies and water reuse systems. The thesis is a comprehensive review of water reduction strategies that can be applied to school buildings in Hawaii.
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    Improving the Quality of Life for Older Adults in High-rise Residential Buildings in Urban Honolulu Through Responsive and Adaptive Design
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Poscablo, Mike Aldrine ; Rockwood, David ; Architecture
    Hawai‘i's housing crisis and high cost of living affect quality of life for its residents, particularly the older adult population. Consequently, many older adults end up living in unfit environments. As Hawai‘i's overall population grows and ages, these challenges escalate in size and complexity. Moreover, as the earth’s climate continues to change, the impacts of the built space intensify, putting this already vulnerable population at even greater risk. This research proposes an architectural design criterion for improving the quality of life of older adults that is based on combined design solutions explored through several case studies. These design solutions include adaptive design, which adjusts the living environment to the demographic, social, and cultural contexts; bioclimatic design, which focuses on comfort in response to changing climate conditions; and lastly, biophilic design, which embraces the relationship between humans and nature in architecture. The last portion of the research proposes an architectural design fora high-rise residence that employs the design criteria and includes adaptive and bioclimatic features. Indoor comfort was assessed using building simulation software to determine the effectiveness of the proposed design methods. The overall healthiness of the building was evaluated using five elements derived from Blue Zone communities, as defined by Dan Beuttner, which were translated into environmental characteristics that measure the overall design of the architecture in relation to human health. The ultimate goal of this research is to enhance the quality of life for older adults in a residential high-rise typology, the architectural prototype will serve as inspiration for an alternative option of dwelling for Hawai‘i's older adult population that addresses the evolution of life and specifically supports the residents’ well-being.
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    Prefabricated House: Defining Architectural Quality and Identity Through the Innovation of Prefab Tectonics
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Park, Joo-Hyun ; Despang, Martin ; Architecture
    This dissertation is for design of mid‐income people house that they can afford “Jense” Korean rental system. Therefore, I focused on high quality design, general size for a family, and regular budget. This is because failure reason of prefab architecture in Korea came from low cost and quality. Moreover, to figure out the value of identity, I would like to begin research with customization through the eyes of the owner. I am going to research and test clients needs, both negative and positive, within prefab system. In present day case of prefab houses, it is hard to have customization due to government regulations and affordability needs; therefore I have to figure out architecturally good quality and merits to prove that possibility of customization is a benefit to society, changing the definition of prefab house. Additionally, the existing perception for prefabrication house is negative. My proposal is researching not only economics, but also high quality design, including sustainability and adaptability in order to build prefab houses for the general population, not only for affordable housing. To figure out this issue, my research’s goal is to have good architectural design by implementing mass‐customization options for a variety of applications. This project applied in Busan where Second city in Korea. The structure is a creative system by using two materials that are concrete and wood. Furthermore, I research two directions of systems for Prefab Architecture. There are Precast Concrete Culvert and Cross Nailed Timber (CNT).
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    Exploring Evolving Programs in Architecture: A Detailed Analysis and Design for Future Proofing Singapore’s Changi Airport.
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Pak, Jin Kyung ; Walters, Lance ; Architecture
    Architecture and technology have a constrained relationship in part to their diverging principal-qualities (permanence vs speed, respectively). Buildings, while often designed with technical integration in mind, are rarely designed to take advantage of or to anticipate future trends or technologies. This misappropriation of technological progress in architecture materializes in form of retrofits, additions, and expansions – a chase in which architecture lags behind technology and its resulting and profound influence on culture and behavior. Architectural design and building programs may benefit from a deeper consideration and anticipation of evolving technological elements early in the design process. There may be no better building typology to understand past, present, and future design approaches than airports and their sequentially constructed terminals – true case studies of design thought and influences in contained and chronological configuration; snapshots of architectural and technological dependencies. This dissertation examines the past, current and proposed terminal designs at Singapore’s Changi Airport in order to understand the influences, technological contribution, and passenger experience goals throughout the terminal design process. The dissertation concludes with an alternative design to the currently proposed Terminal 5 design and aims to conceptually unify and prepare each current terminal for additional terminals as the airport expands.
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    Promoting Healthy Aging Through Transportable Accessory Dwelling Unit Communities
    (Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Olsen, Alessandra ; Noe, Joyce ; Architecture
    Due to Hawai’i’s aging population, high cost of living, housing shortage, and limited public transportation, aging in Hawai’i can be challenging. The sprawling suburban neighborhoods commonly found throughout Oahu can lead to the social and physical isolation of many elderly individuals. Isolation which can possibly lead to mental stress with anxiety and depression, can also have negative impacts on physical health. The purpose of this dissertation is to create home and community environments that promote healthy aging. The housing prototype that was explored is an accessory dwelling unit, (ADU), that can be placed on a single-family home lot, or transported to a planned community site comprised of similar ADU units. The uniqueness of this ADU home, is that it can be moved intact, thus allowing the occupant to move locations, yet remain in the same home surroundings. The relocation of the ADU to the planned community will allow the occupant more opportunities for social interaction, physical activity, horticultural therapy, and access to nearby amenities. Therapeutic healthy aging activities are also promoted within the interior of the units through adaptable furniture pieces. Precedent studies of adaptable interior environments, transportable homes, and Metabolic architecture were analyzed for their application to the design of this housing prototype. This dissertation is a new housing model for aging in Hawai’i.