Horizons, Volume 8

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 25
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    Front and Back Cover
    ( 2023-12-08)
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    Her Body is Tethered
    ( 2023-12-08) Fajardo, Angelica Flor
    The bodies of Filipino women (also referred to as Filipina) had been made pawns of colonialism and imperialism. This essay sets out to contextualize the environment brought on by the Spanish, Japanese, and American colonialist eras through the lens of the religious villainization, manipulation, and the consequences of military presence in the Philippines. These eras demonstrate major instances of bodily abuse. This article provides an introduction to efforts to protect the Filipina. Such methods regard public rallying and displays, visual arts, and demand for government assistance. Despite these methods, there still remains a possible future of violence with the current partnership of a colonial power.
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    Farming on the Final Frontier: Space Farming with Martian Soil Simulants
    ( 2023-12-08) Nelson, Brylin
    Because temperature and light intensity on Mars are significantly lower than that of Earth, the use of controlled environment agriculture production to grow crops can be an option. The objective of this study was to compare simulated Martian soils Mojave Mars Simulant (MMS-1) and Enhanced Mojave Mars Simulant (MMS-2) to a commercial growing medium, Pro-Mix BX Mycorrhizae (Pro-Mix), based on overall plant growth, health, and edible end products. The Martian soil simulants, MMS-1 and MMS-2, are composed of crushed Saddleback Basalt rock. MMS-2 differs due to the addition of nutrients and oxides. In this study, we looked at a variety of crops chosen for their nutritional value, cold and shade tolerance, and size. Crops were dwarf curled kale, ‘Red Robin’ tomato, and ‘Cherry Belle’ radish. Mars is further from the Sun than Earth resulting in lower light intensity and colder climate. To simulate this, a shadehouse and fans were used to diffuse sunlight and regulate temperature. To explore this idea further the crops in the soils were examined under full-spectrum light-emitting diode (LED) grow lights indoors on a 16-hour day length timer. Plant height and stem diameter taken on a weekly basis showed delayed rates of growth in all crops with both MMS-1 and MMS-2 compared to Pro-Mix. Edible end products were not significantly different in the compared soils. From these experiments, it was found that additional nutrients provided through a pellet fertilizer or nutrient solution are necessary for proper plant development when using the Martian soil simulants.
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    Nā Mele o ke Aupuni Mōʻī -- Songs of the Kingdom
    ( 2023-12-08) Delos Santos, Leah
    The pictures in this photo essay depict various mele Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian songs) that are either from the time of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, significant to the lāhui (nation), or both. They are anthems of pride and resistance – testaments to the boundless strength and beauty of Kānaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians) throughout history.
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    Wishful Dreaming
    ( 2023-12-08) Arakaki, Danielle
    I wrote this piece originally as a freewriting assignment for one of my classes. When I wrote this story, I wanted the reader to feel like they were in a dream-like state they did not want to get out of. Lately, I have been having a huge fascination with dreams, and I wanted to try to do something new and unexpected with this piece. Although this was not based on an actual dream I had, I wanted this story to have a dreamy, trance-like feel to it, so I wrote the gist of it late at night before going to sleep. I remembered lying down on my bed with a piece of paper and pen and writing some lines with my eyes closed while picturing the details in my head. I think by doing this, it helped me not to overthink all the words and details that went into the story and instead focus on capturing that mysterious, dream-like quality of this fictional story. When I was writing this piece, it was important for me to have it be in first person and not state anything specific about the narrator. I wanted the reader to be right there with the narrator witnessing these events, but did not want to get into specifics about gender so it can be read in different ways depending on the reader. In this piece, there are also nods to famous fairy tales readers will likely recognize and have fun pointing out.
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    Perpetuation of ʻIke ʻĀina in Waialua
    ( 2023-12-08) Paracuelles, Anthony
    As a child growing up in Waialua, I would see the Kawaihāpai River flowing into the ocean. Now it is blocked by overgrowth, no longer flowing to the ocean, and shrinking in size. The same can be said about knowledge. If a blockage happens, the knowledge cannot flow. It will slowly fade and disappear. The elders of my family and community of Waialua have entrusted me with their knowledge in the hope of preserving the history of our land. This paper will be a record to preserve and perpetuate the knowledge and history of Waialua, inspire others to care for and protect our land, and bring awareness to the negative changes that have taken place.
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    Geometrical Structures of Native Hawaiʻian Kōkō Nets
    ( 2023-12-08) Sasaoka, Brenton
    To improve the transportation of valuable resources, Hawaiians developed kōkō nets. These nets were bags of netted cords in the shape of an elongated cone above the lower hemisphere composed of natural fibrous materials. The proposed work analyzes the various lengths, structures, and connections of cord segments between knots. Tensile strength will be measured experimentally using structural stress measurements. The distributed weight load on segments will be calculated using engineering mechanics principles. The developed mathematical models will explain how the net, consisting of 1D string made in the 2D plane, can carry 3D volumetric heavy objects without geometrical mismatches between dimensions in proper balances of forces and torques. After matching the experimental and theoretical results, the proposed work will provide an in-depth understanding of the engineering aspects of the kōkō nets as an essential component of the Hawaiian lifestyle being inherited to the present. The convergence of modern engineering principles and Hawaiian cultural living methods will provide a holistic insight into designing more nature-friendly engineering practices.
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    The Usual
    ( 2023-12-08) Mendoza, Annika Daisy
    “The Usual” was written to be a flash piece under the genre: story. The requirements for the assignment were to span a long period of time focusing on character development. This development is seen from the character, “the daughter.” The narrator gets to witness the daughter growing up into an adult. The development in the story was guided from a single line, “That’s big” said by the daughter. It became a steeple in the writing as it helped support the aging of the daughter. Initially I wrote this piece to tell a story about strangers connecting through food, however, that changed when the birthmark subplot was developed. The birthmark characteristic for the daughter was not in the initial paper and was suggested by my classmate. Now it is what connects the narrator to the daughter. The story is based on my personal experience as a regular to a locally owned restaurant. If I had to describe the piece in 3 words, it would be nostalgia and family love.
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    Ang Babaylan
    ( 2023-12-08) Camacho, Florani
    During the pre-colonial period of the Philippines, the babaylans held a leadership role in the community as priestesses, warriors, and healers-mediators of the spirit world. Before the datus (head chief) made their decisions, they needed to seek advice from the babaylans. Unfortunately, when the Spaniards colonized the Philippines and Christianity took over, the babaylans were forced to give up their role. They were the keepers of peace and justice and had a duty to heal not only the people but also the land. This painting aims to embody a babaylan to breathe life into the forgotten spiritual leaders. Shielded by the forest, kneeling on a river, the subject offers a white lotus to symbolize purity and resilience; glowing to magnify her spiritual connection to her environment. The bottom third of the frame are miniature figures illustrating Western culture's influence in the Philippines. The three-star figure, otherwise known as the “parol” are ornamental lantern displayed during the Christmas season. The small chapel-like figure is an illustration of Magellan’s cross pavilion that marks the birth of Christianity in the Philippines. Next to the chapel are the people lifting the idol Sto. Niño. It is one of the acts of praise during the festival celebration called “Sinulog”. Lastly, the figures on the far right are a variety of Filipino dishes representing its diverse influences.