Pacific Science Volume 22, Number 3, 1968

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Note. Theophrastaceae, a Family Wrongly Attributed to the Hawaiian Flora
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1968-07) Stone, Benjamin C.
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    A New Polyclad Turbellarian Associating with a Hermit Crab in the Hawaiian Islands
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1968-07) Prudhoe, Stephen
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    Lamellate Structures in the Nucleolus of the Cellular Slime mold Acrasis rosea
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1968-07) Hohl, Hans R. ; Hamamoto, Susan T.
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    A Geological and Ecological Reconnaissance off Western Oahu, Hawaii, Principally by Means of the Research Submarine "Asherah"
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1968-07) Brock, Vernon E. ; Chamberlain, Theodore C.
    In November 1965 a combined geological and ecological reconnaissance of the sea floor off western Oahu was undertaken using a variety of methods and techniques to maximize both the range and reliability of the information obtained. Bottom topography and fish concentrations were surveyed with a precision echo sound recorder for which the transducer was towed in a streamlined housing below the research ship. Photographic bottom surveys were also made with an automatic stereo-camera system, and some bottom dredging and trawling were undertaken to secure samples of the bottom and the biota. Direct visual observations were also made using a small research submarine largely in the depth range of 25- 180 meters. The dominant geological features were a series of submerged , wave cut, largely sand covered terraces separated by rocky escarpments. The major terraces were an upper one terminating seaward at approximately 60 meters, an intermediate one from 70 to 120 meters, and a deep one beginning from a shoreward depth of 180 meters or deeper. Patterns of littoral sand movement were observed to be southerly in the region between Kaena Point and Kepuhi Point with a substantial movement offshore. It was estimated that approximately 10,000 cubic yards of calcareous sand move seaward and are deposited annually on the inner portions of the deep terrace. Associated with the escarpments were large and discontinuous aggregations of fish and, on the upper and intermediate terraces, extensive beds of the clam Pinna muricata. The observed patterns of distributions may be a response to the localized accumulation of food. Organisms which make nocturnal vertical migrations in adjacent deep water may be swept shoreward by surface currents and become trapped on the terraces. The collection of planktonic organic material in the thermocline where the water increases rapidly in density with depth may be a mechanism for the localized accumulation of particulate food of value to the clams. The simultaneous use of a variety of observational techniques in an area provided non-identical and independent observations of the same situations . Th is served to confirm the information obtained and to add new and significant detail.
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    The Determination of a Series of Ages of Hawaiian Volcanoes by the Potassium-Argon Method!
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1968-07) Funkhouser, John G. ; Barnes, I.L. ; Naughton, John J.
    Geologically speaking, the Hawaiian Islands are perhaps the most thoroughly studied group of oceanic islands in the world. Because of their relative petrological and structural simplicity, they constitute an example where an intensive application of the techniques of geology and geophysics may be expected to yield significant results particularly relevant to volcanology. An example of a thorough effort of this type was reported by McDougall (1964) who measured the relative ages of the surface lavas of most of the older volcanoes of the islands using the potassium-argon method of geochronology. We would like to report additional age measurements obtained by the same method, with a concentration of our effort on the Waianae Volcano on the island of Oahu. A scattering of measurements made on samples from other sites also is tabulated.
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    Ecological Factors on Manana Island, Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1968-07) Tomich, P.Q. ; Wilson, Nixon ; Lamoureux, Charles H.
    A 25-ha islet occupied by seasonally nesting sea birds, feral rabbits, and house mice is considered. Rabbits presumably modified the unknown original vegetation in their 70 or more years on the island and reached an equilibrium with a plant cover composed largely of a few hard y introduced grasses. A total of 28 species of higher plants has been recorded from the island, only 6 of which are native to Hawaii. Rabbits occur in low to moderate numbers, sustained by a food source that is enriched by bird guano and subject to annual drought. Average body weight of the mouse is remarkably heavy at 19.5 g. Data on biological and food habits are presented for both mammals. Among 13 species of ectoparasites of birds and mammals are two unusual host adaptations : of the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, to Oryctolagns cuniculus, and of the Oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, to Mus musculus. Rabbits appear not to be detrimental to the nesting of bird s, and their control or extermination is discouraged at present. The scientific importance of the island's unique ecosystem is stressed, and proposals for its intensive study are outlined.
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    The Associates of Four Species of Marine Sponges of Oregon and Washington
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1968-06) Long, Edward R.
    Four species of sponge from the coasts of Oregon and Washington were studied and dissected for inhabitants and associates. The four species differed in texture, composition, and habitat, and likewise, the populations of associates of each differed, even when samples of two of these species were found adjacent to one another. Generally, the relationships of the associates to the host sponges were of four sorts: (1) inquilinism or lodging, either accidental or intentional; (2) predation or grazing; (3) competition for space resulting in "co-habitation" of an area (i.e., a plant or animal growing up through a sponge); and (4) mutualism. Fish eggs in the hollow chambers of Homaxinella sp. represented fish-in-sponge inquilinism, which is the first such instance reported in the Pacific Ocean and in this sponge. The sponge Halichondria panicea, with an intracellular algal symbiont, was found to emit an attractant into the water, which Archidoris montereyensis followed, in behavior experiments, in preference to other sponges simultaneously offered. A total of 6,098 organisms, representing 68 species, were found associated with the samples of Halichondria panicea with densities of up to 19 organisms per cm3 of sponge tissue. There were 9,581 plants and animals found with Microciona prolifera, and 150 with Suberites lata.
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