Pacific Science Volume 36, Number 2, 1982

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    36:2 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04)
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    Distribution, Morphology, and Geochemistry of Manganese Nodules from the Valivia 13/2 Area, Equatorial North Pacific
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04) Glasby, G.P. ; Friedrich, G. ; Thijssen, T. ; Pluger, W.L. ; Kunzendorf, H. ; Ghosh, A.K. ; Roonwal, G.S.
    Manganese nodules were collected during cruise 13/2 of R.V. Valdivia in 1976 in a small area of the equatorial north Pacific characterized by abyssal hill topography. The sediments are dominantly siliceous oozes in which extensive dissolution ofsiliceous material has taken place. Three principal nodule morphologies were recovered: polynucleate nodules, mononucleate nodules, and manganese crusts. Polynucleate nodules occur throughout the entire depth range studied whereas mononucleate nodules are found principally below 5000 m; manganese crusts are restricted to the abyssal hill environments. Nodule density remains on average roughly constant (> 7 kg/m2) with water depth (although varying considerably, 0-27 kg/m2, throughout the area), but the form in which the nodules occur changes with water depth. Nodule composition was investigated as a function of water depth, nodule size, and nodule morphology and shown to be related principally to nodule morphology. Mononucleate nodules have higher contents of Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn and lower contents of Fe and Co than polynucleate nodules. The lithogenous fraction in the nodules is similar in both morphologies, although it varies considerably with nodule size. Both morphologies contain todorokite andJ-Mn02as the principal manganese oxide phases, but todorokite is relatively more abundant in the mononucleate nodules. The data are best interpreted in terms of the diagenetic supply of the transition elements Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn to the nodules resulting from the in situ dissolution of siliceous tests in the sediment column. This process is more pronounced in the abyssal regions than on the flanks of the abyssal hills and leads to the enrichment of these elements in the larger mononucleate nodules embedded at the sediment -water interface there. This enhanced supply of transition elements also leads to the stabilization of todorokite in these nodules. Polynucleate nodules appear to be preferentially formed under conditions of higher sedimentation rate on the flanks of abyssal hills in an environment where abundant seeds are available. Mononucleate nodules are formed in abyssal environments characterized by lower sedimentation rate where enhanced rates of supply of biogenically derived elements can take place.
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    New Habitat Report for Maldivia trunguiculata (Borradaile) (Brachyura, Xanthidae), a Facultative Symbiont of Porites lobata Dana in Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04) Coles, Stephen L.
    Maldivia triunguiculata (Borradaile), a xanthid crab, lives within chambers in the skeletons oflive Porites lobata corals. The chamber openings are readily recognizable on the live surfaces of P. lobata heads, and chambers penetrate into coral skeletons up to 5.5 cm. Crabs inhabited an average of 85 percent of the chambers investigated. Occupied chambers contained males or females, but never more than one crab per chamber. Areal density of M. triunguiculata on P. lobata increased with increasing coverage of the reef by the live coral, indicating a strong association between the two species. Although M. triunguiculata may occur on dead coral reef, this study indicates that it is more frequently found in live P. lobata.
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    Larval Ascaridoid Nematodes from Fishes near the Hawaiian Islands, with Comments on Pathgenicity Experiments
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04) Deardorff, Thomas L. ; Kliks, Michael M. ; Rosenfeld, Mitchel E. ; Rychlinski, Robert A. ; Desowitz, Robert S.
    A total of 134 species of finfishes and 8 species of invertebrates, which were caught near the Hawaiian Islands over a 26-month period, were examined for larval nematodes. A total of 21,746 ascaridoid larvae were recovered. Larval nematodes of the genera Anisakis (two types), Hysterothylacium (three types), Raphidascaris (one type), and Terranova (two types) were identified. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for most larvae. A key is included. No anisakine larvae were found in the invertebrates. Inoculations of laboratory rats with various larvae demonstrated that at least Anisakis type II and Terranova type HA harm the host.
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    Cantherhines longicaudaus, A New Filefish from Oceania, with a Review of the Species of the C. fronticinctus Complex
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04) Hutchins, J Barry ; Randall, John E.
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    The Effect of Temperature and Light on Metrosideros polymorpha Seed Germination
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04) Burton, Philip J.
    Seeds of a Hawaiian rain forest tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha, were germinated at temperatures ranging from 5 to 35°C and under photosynthetic photon flux densities ranging from 0 to approximately 2000 IlE·m-2·s-1. Results after 30 days indicate that 25°C is the optimal temperature and 170 IlE·m-2·s-1 or about 4-15 percent relative irradiance is the optimal light intensity for Metrosideros germination. Declining germination at higher irradiances was probably due to excessively high temperatures and intermittent desiccation. No seeds germinated at temperatures less than 12°C. Light was not found to be strictly required but improved germination by up to four times. Only 14 percent ofthe seeds sampled appeared to have intact embryos, hence the poor (15 percent) germination achieved even under optimal conditions. Low temperatures (generally less than 17°C) must curtail germination success on the floor of montane rain forests. The higher temperatures associated with increased light intensity are probably more beneficial than light itself in increasing germination success in forest clearings. These relationships to light and temperature may partly explain why Metrosideros seedlings are often infrequent beneath dense rain forest canopies.
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    Speciation and Evolution of Marine Fishes Studied by the Electrophoretic Analysis of Proteins
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04) Shaklee, James B. ; Tamaru, Clyde S. ; Waples, Robin S.
    Electrophoretic analysis of proteins can be utilized to clarify the taxonomic status of species as well as the evolutionary interrelationships of populations, species, and higher taxa. Electrophoretic data for over 50 gene loci in the bonefish Albula "vulpes" (Albulidae) demonstrate the existence of two discrete species in Hawaii and throughout the Indo-West Pacific. Similar studies of lizardfishes (Synodontidae) in the genera Synodus and Saurida reveal that several unreported and/or undescribed species occur in the Hawaiian Islands. Both of these studies emphasize the power of electrophoresis in distinguishing morphologically cryptic species. The interrelationships of species and genera of lizardfishes and of goatfishes (Mullidae) were investigated by using values of genetic distance derived from protein similarities and differences. These comparisons and the analysis of the two bonefish species, provide additional examples of the basic independence of the rates of biochemical and morphological evolution. Published electrophoretic investigations of fish speciation and evolution are reviewed and several guidelines for future applications of the technique are proposed. The importance of sympatric samples, the use of large numbers of gene loci, and the conservative interpretation of genetic distance values are emphasized. The utility of electrophoretic data for (a) identifying species (especially juvenile, larval, and embryonic stages, or isolated animal products such as fillets); (b) identifying F 1 interspecific hybrids; and (c) estimating absolute and relative divergence times between taxa are discussed. Finally, the combined use of electrophoretic data from fresh specimens together with multivariate morphometric analyses of both the fresh specimens and preserved museum type specimens is recommended as a robust approach for sorting out nomenclatural problems.
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    Inheritance of Rugose Leaf in Desmodium
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04) Chow, K.H.
    Four plants with rugose leaflets were found among 19 interspecific double-cross hybrid plants of Desmodium. It was found through test crosses and progeny tests that rugose leaflet was controlled by three pairs ofgenes which were complementary in action, with each of the three Desmodium species contributing one dominant gene.
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    Three New Labrid Fishes of the Genus Coris from the Western Pacific
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-04) Randall, John E. ; Kuiter, Rudie H.
    Three new species of the labrid fish genus Caris are described: C. pictoides from Malaysia, Celebes, and eastern and western Australia; C. aurilineata from southern Queensland and New South Wales; and C. bulbifrons from Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, Middleton Reef, and, rarely, New South Wales. Caris pictoides is a small species (largest, 89 mm SL) distinctive in having 48-51 lateral-line scales and in being whitish with a broad black stripe from snout through eye, along upper side of body, ending in upper central part of caudal fin, this stripe separated by a narrow white band from a middorsal black stripe. Caris aurilineata is also a small species (largest, 98 mm SL) with a low (49-51) lateral-line scale count; it is green with orange-yellow stripes which are narrow dorsally and relatively broad ventrally; a small blackish spot is present at upper base ofcaudal fin and another at upper base of pectoral fin; females have a large elliptical blue-edged black spot basally in soft portion of dorsal fin. Caris bulbifrons is the largest species of Caris, reaching a length of about 1 m; it has 61-66 lateral-line scales; juveniles have irregular, broad, dark-brown stripes alternating with narrow pale, partially broken bands; adults are bluish gray; both sexes develop a prominent convexity in the upper head profile anterodorsal to the eye. This has given rise to the common name "doubleheader" at Lord Howe Island.
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