Volume 48 - December 2016 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Index - PHES Volume 48
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-20)
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    Minutes for fiscal Year 2015
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-20) Matsunaga, Janis N.
    The following are brief synopses of the minutes of the meetings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society for the fiscal year 2015. The HES fiscal year runs from March 1 to the end of February of the following year. More detailed minutes are kept with the Secretary of the Society.
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    Rearing Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Mediterranean Fruit Fly and its Introduction into Senegal against Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-14) Vargas, Roger I. ; Leblanc, Luc ; McKenney, Michael ; Mackey, Bruce ; Harris, Ernest J. ; Badji, Kemo
    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (aka B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White), a serious pest of tropical fruits, particularly mango, was first reported in Africa in 2003 and quickly spread to over 27 countries. In the parasitoid introduction reported herein, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) was reared on and shipped to Senegal inside pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), which is endemic to Africa, rather than its usual B. dorsalis host, because B. invadens was still treated as a separate species from B. dorsalis in 2012, and to avoid the risk of fly escape from unparasitized pupae in the shipment. From 2013 to 2014, 14 shipments, totaling approximately 246,000 F. arisanus, were sent from Hilo, HI, USA to Dakar, Senegal and released in 12 mango and orange orchards in the Casamance region of southern Senegal. Parasitoids were emerged from pupae, processed and small scale rearing done on locally available B. dorsalis for subsequent releases. Limited numbers of F. arisanus had also been released in 2012 from cultures maintained in Cotonou, Benin, by IITA under the PADERCA project, but parasitism was relatively low. During 2013 and 2014 parasitism rate in mango fruits has steadily increased to 20–25%. Based on this technique, a similar approach has been used for introduction of F. arisanus against carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, into Brazil.
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    Low Variation in Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Inhibits Resolution of Invasion Pathways across the Pacific for the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Scarabeidae: Oryctes rhinoceros)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Reil, J. Bradley ; San Jose, Michael ; Rubinoff, Daniel
    The coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) is a severe pest of coconut and other palms that has invaded the South Pacific in the last decade. The beetle can cause great economic losses, not only to agriculture but also due to indirect impacts on tropical aesthetics and tourism. In the last decade, new invasive populations of the beetle have been detected on Guam and Oahu, Hawaii. Despite the beetle’s extensive invasion history and economic impacts, little is known about its invasion dynamics. We used 1,480 base pairs of cytochrome oxidase subunit I mitochondrial and 814 base pairs of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase nuclear DNA to conduct a population genetics analysis on eight beetle populations from Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, and China in the beetle’s native range and Palau, American Samoa, Guam, and Hawaii in the beetle’s invasive range, in an attempt to resolve invasion pathways. Genetic diversity was insufficient to generate strong evidence for O. rhinoceros movement patterns. Mitochondrial DNA provided a clear but poorly supported population structure. Although nuclear DNA proved to be more diverse, population structure lacked clear signal. This lack of diversity is congruent with a rapid, recent invasion. There appears to be no genetic exchange between populations once they establish, implying that they are rare, human-mediated dispersal events.
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    Testing the Attractiveness and Efficacy of Baits for the Monitoring and Control of the Thief Ant, Solenopsis papuana
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Ogura-Yamada, Cassandra ; Krushelnycky, Paul D.
    Solenopsis papuana is one of the few introduced ant species that have widely infiltrated undisturbed mesic and wet forests in Hawaii. This may be problematic since many endemic Hawaiian insects are limited to mountain forests, and methods for monitoring and controlling S. papuana would be useful. Four non-toxic monitoring baits (corn syrup, SPAM®, peanut butter, and tuna/ corn syrup blend) and five ant pesticide baits (Advion® Fire Ant BaitTM, Amdro® Ant Block®, ExtinguishTM Plus, MaxForce® Complete Brand Granular Insect Bait, and SiestaTM) were tested for attractiveness to S. papuana in choice tests at Lyon Arboretum and Pahole Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the island of Oahu. Amdro® Ant Block® and SiestaTM were also tested for efficacy against S. papuana in field plots at Pahole NAR. SPAM® and peanut butter were the most attractive monitoring baits at both locations. There were few significant differences in at- tractiveness among the five ant pesticides, but Amdro® Ant Block® attracted the highest or second highest number of ants at both sites, while rankings among the other baits were inconsistent. Amdro® Ant Block® presented in bait stations 2.5 m apart greatly reduced the number of ants at monitoring cards in field plots, by an average of 96% from pre-treatment levels over the course of the 246-day trial. Ant numbers also declined in the SiestaTM plots (by 77%), but more closely mir- rored fluctuations in the untreated control plots. These methods were effective for monitoring and suppressing S. papuana populations in localized natural areas in the Waianae Mountain Range.