Volume 48 - December 2016 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Index - PHES Volume 48
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-20)
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    Minutes for fiscal Year 2015
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-20) Matsunaga, Janis N.
    The following are brief synopses of the minutes of the meetings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society for the fiscal year 2015. The HES fiscal year runs from March 1 to the end of February of the following year. More detailed minutes are kept with the Secretary of the Society.
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    Rearing Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Mediterranean Fruit Fly and its Introduction into Senegal against Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-14) Vargas, Roger I. ; Leblanc, Luc ; McKenney, Michael ; Mackey, Bruce ; Harris, Ernest J. ; Badji, Kemo
    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (aka B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White), a serious pest of tropical fruits, particularly mango, was first reported in Africa in 2003 and quickly spread to over 27 countries. In the parasitoid introduction reported herein, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) was reared on and shipped to Senegal inside pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), which is endemic to Africa, rather than its usual B. dorsalis host, because B. invadens was still treated as a separate species from B. dorsalis in 2012, and to avoid the risk of fly escape from unparasitized pupae in the shipment. From 2013 to 2014, 14 shipments, totaling approximately 246,000 F. arisanus, were sent from Hilo, HI, USA to Dakar, Senegal and released in 12 mango and orange orchards in the Casamance region of southern Senegal. Parasitoids were emerged from pupae, processed and small scale rearing done on locally available B. dorsalis for subsequent releases. Limited numbers of F. arisanus had also been released in 2012 from cultures maintained in Cotonou, Benin, by IITA under the PADERCA project, but parasitism was relatively low. During 2013 and 2014 parasitism rate in mango fruits has steadily increased to 20–25%. Based on this technique, a similar approach has been used for introduction of F. arisanus against carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, into Brazil.
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    Low Variation in Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Inhibits Resolution of Invasion Pathways across the Pacific for the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Scarabeidae: Oryctes rhinoceros)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Reil, J. Bradley ; San Jose, Michael ; Rubinoff, Daniel
    The coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) is a severe pest of coconut and other palms that has invaded the South Pacific in the last decade. The beetle can cause great economic losses, not only to agriculture but also due to indirect impacts on tropical aesthetics and tourism. In the last decade, new invasive populations of the beetle have been detected on Guam and Oahu, Hawaii. Despite the beetle’s extensive invasion history and economic impacts, little is known about its invasion dynamics. We used 1,480 base pairs of cytochrome oxidase subunit I mitochondrial and 814 base pairs of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase nuclear DNA to conduct a population genetics analysis on eight beetle populations from Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, and China in the beetle’s native range and Palau, American Samoa, Guam, and Hawaii in the beetle’s invasive range, in an attempt to resolve invasion pathways. Genetic diversity was insufficient to generate strong evidence for O. rhinoceros movement patterns. Mitochondrial DNA provided a clear but poorly supported population structure. Although nuclear DNA proved to be more diverse, population structure lacked clear signal. This lack of diversity is congruent with a rapid, recent invasion. There appears to be no genetic exchange between populations once they establish, implying that they are rare, human-mediated dispersal events.
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    Testing the Attractiveness and Efficacy of Baits for the Monitoring and Control of the Thief Ant, Solenopsis papuana
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Ogura-Yamada, Cassandra ; Krushelnycky, Paul D.
    Solenopsis papuana is one of the few introduced ant species that have widely infiltrated undisturbed mesic and wet forests in Hawaii. This may be problematic since many endemic Hawaiian insects are limited to mountain forests, and methods for monitoring and controlling S. papuana would be useful. Four non-toxic monitoring baits (corn syrup, SPAM®, peanut butter, and tuna/ corn syrup blend) and five ant pesticide baits (Advion® Fire Ant BaitTM, Amdro® Ant Block®, ExtinguishTM Plus, MaxForce® Complete Brand Granular Insect Bait, and SiestaTM) were tested for attractiveness to S. papuana in choice tests at Lyon Arboretum and Pahole Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the island of Oahu. Amdro® Ant Block® and SiestaTM were also tested for efficacy against S. papuana in field plots at Pahole NAR. SPAM® and peanut butter were the most attractive monitoring baits at both locations. There were few significant differences in at- tractiveness among the five ant pesticides, but Amdro® Ant Block® attracted the highest or second highest number of ants at both sites, while rankings among the other baits were inconsistent. Amdro® Ant Block® presented in bait stations 2.5 m apart greatly reduced the number of ants at monitoring cards in field plots, by an average of 96% from pre-treatment levels over the course of the 246-day trial. Ant numbers also declined in the SiestaTM plots (by 77%), but more closely mir- rored fluctuations in the untreated control plots. These methods were effective for monitoring and suppressing S. papuana populations in localized natural areas in the Waianae Mountain Range.
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    Capture of Mediterranean Fruit Flies and Melon Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Food-Baited Traps in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Shelly, Todd E. ; Kurashima, Rick S.
    Food-based attractants are an important component of tephritid fruit fly detection programs, because they are general baits that are neither sex- nor species-specific. Two widely used food baits are enzymatic hydrolyzed torula yeast, which is presented as an aqueous solution that also serves to catch insects (wet trap), and a synthetic lure that combines ammomonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine and may be presented with or without a water-based catch system. Recently, the liquid attractant CeraTrap, which is an enzymatic hydrolyzed animal protein, has been shown to be equally or more effective than traditional protein baits in capturing species of Anastrepha. The present study compares capture of wild Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) in traps baited with torula yeast or CeraTrap. In addition, one sampling interval compared the catch of C. capitata in wet traps baited with torula yeast, a synthetic food lure, or CeraTrap. CeraTrap was generally more effective in capturing both sexes of C. capitata than the other food baits, while torula yeast resulted in higher captures of Z. cucurbitae than CeraTrap. Results are compared with other trapping studies of tephritids involving food-based attractants.
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    Macadamia Felted Coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei: Biology and Life Cycle in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Zarders, Dominique R. ; Wright, Mark G.
    The life cycle and general biology of Eriococcus ironsidei were ob- served in the field and under laboratory conditions. We provide data on duration of developmental stages, fecundity, and longevity of the insects. The female can be found in high numbers on branches of macadamia nut tress while the males mostly colonize the leaves. The average duration of time to complete metamorphosis varied between the sexes. Females took 32 days and males 16 days after hatching from eggs to reach the adult stage. Females produced up to 97 eggs (mean of 36.7) and were capable of producing eggs for over 50 days under laboratory conditions.
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    The History of Little Fire Ant Wasmannia auropunctata Roger in the Hawaiian Islands: Spread, Control, and Local Eradication
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Vanderwoude, Casper ; Montgomery, Michelle ; Forester, Heather ; Hensley, Ersel ; Adachi, Michael K.
    The islands of Hawaii have been the battleground for successive “inva- sion waves” by exotic ants for over a century. The arrival of Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius) (the big headed ant) in the late nineteenth century, was followed in 1939 by Linepithema humile (Mayr) (the Argentine ant) and Anoplolepis gracilipes (fr. Smith), (the longlegged Ant) in 1953. The most recent arrival is the little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata Roger) which was first recorded in 1999. This paper chronicles the subsequent spread of W. auropunctata through the Hawaiian archi- pelago. Initially introduced and spread via the import and sale of nursery plants, W. auropunctata is now well-established on the island of Hawaii. Ubiquitous on the windward side of Hawaii island, W. auropunctata are now being transported not only via nursery plants but also via non-agricultural products. The prevention, detection and response to W. auropunctata introductions is addressed by infor- mal and ad hoc partnerships between a number of agencies, each contributing to preventing and reducing spread of this species. The draft Hawaii Inter-Agency Biosecurity Plan recognizes and strengthens these partnerships and will contribute positively to Hawaii’s biosecurity system.
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    Capturing Males of Pestiferous Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Is the Combination of Triple-Lure Wafers and Insecticidal Strips as Effective as Standard Treatments?
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Shelly, Todd E. ; Nishimoto, Jon ; Kurashima, Rick
    The detection of invasive tephritid fruit fly pests relies primarily on traps baited with male-specific lures. Three different male lures are typically used, and accordingly three sets of traps are deployed: those baited with liquid methyl eugenol (ME) or liquid cue lure (CL) for different Bactrocera species and those baited with plug-bearing trimedlure (TML) for Ceratitis species. The liquid lures contain the insecticide naled, whereas the trimedlure plugs contain no toxicant. Preparing the liquid solutions and servicing three types of traps requires consid- erable labor, and handling naled (and possibly ME) introduces potential health risks. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Jackson traps baited with a solid dispenser (wafer) containing all three male lures plus a separate insecticidal (DDVP; 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) strip with Jackson traps baited with the standard male lure/toxicant combinations. Trapping was conducted during two 12-week periods in a coffee field on Oahu, Hawaii. The effectiveness of the wafer-baited traps varied among different species. Catch of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) males was similar between wafer-baited and liquid ME-baited traps for both sampling periods. Conversely, traps baited with the standard TML plug captured significantly more Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) males than the wafer-baited traps in both sampling periods. The relative effectiveness of the two trap treatments varied between sampling periods for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) males. Based on these results, the triple-lure wafer plus separate kill strip does not, at present, appear to be a viable substitute for the male lure/toxicant combinations currently in use.
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    Sensitivity of the Quarantine Pest Rough Sweetpotato Weevil, Blosyrus asellus to Postharvest Irradiation Treatment
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2016-12-12) Follett, Peter A. ; McQuate, Grant T. ; Sylva, C.D. ; Swedman, Alison
    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus (Olivier), is a new quar- antine pest of Hawaii sweetpotatoes. Currently, sweetpotatoes can be exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland using a postharvest irradiation treatment of 150 Gy to control three other regulated insect pests. Studies were conducted to deter- mine whether this current radiation dose will also control any rough sweetpotato weevils in export shipments. Adult weevils were treated at various levels between 25 to 125 Gy and egg laying and egg hatch were measured. Rough sweetpotato weevil was found to be highly susceptible to irradiation, with no egg hatch at any radiation dose, even 25 Gy, the lowest dose tested. Results suggest that the 150 Gy irradiation treatment should be sufficient for control of rough sweetpotato weevil in Hawaii sweetpotatoes.