Rearing Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Mediterranean Fruit Fly and its Introduction into Senegal against Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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2016-12-14
Authors
Vargas, Roger I.
Leblanc, Luc
McKenney, Michael
Mackey, Bruce
Harris, Ernest J.
Badji, Kemo
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Hawaiian Entomological Society
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Abstract
Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (aka B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White), a serious pest of tropical fruits, particularly mango, was first reported in Africa in 2003 and quickly spread to over 27 countries. In the parasitoid introduction reported herein, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) was reared on and shipped to Senegal inside pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), which is endemic to Africa, rather than its usual B. dorsalis host, because B. invadens was still treated as a separate species from B. dorsalis in 2012, and to avoid the risk of fly escape from unparasitized pupae in the shipment. From 2013 to 2014, 14 shipments, totaling approximately 246,000 F. arisanus, were sent from Hilo, HI, USA to Dakar, Senegal and released in 12 mango and orange orchards in the Casamance region of southern Senegal. Parasitoids were emerged from pupae, processed and small scale rearing done on locally available B. dorsalis for subsequent releases. Limited numbers of F. arisanus had also been released in 2012 from cultures maintained in Cotonou, Benin, by IITA under the PADERCA project, but parasitism was relatively low. During 2013 and 2014 parasitism rate in mango fruits has steadily increased to 20–25%. Based on this technique, a similar approach has been used for introduction of F. arisanus against carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, into Brazil.
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Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis
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Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society (2016) 48:85-94.
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