Pacific Science Volume 51, Number 3, 1997

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
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    Hermatypic Corals Associated with Rhodolith Beds in the Gulf of California, Mexico
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07) Reyes-Bonilla, H. ; Riosmena-Rodriguez, R. ; Foster, M.S.
    Subtidal surveys along the western Gulf of California coast revealed the presence of free-living hermatypic corals associated with rhodolith beds, the first record of this association in the gulf. Five coral species were found, as follows: Psammocora stellata Verrill, Porites panamensis Verrill, P. sverdrupi Durham, Fungia curvata Hoeksema, and F. distorta Michelin, with several new distributional records, Differences in relative abundance of species in our collections from those in other regions of the Pacific suggest that transport, light, and temperature play important roles in distribution and development of coral-rhodolith associations in the gulf.
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    Migrant Land Birds and Water Birds in the Mariana Islands
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07) Stinson, D.W. ; Wiles, Gary J. ; Reichel, J.D.
    Approximately 56 species of land and freshwater birds have been recorded as migrants or vagrants in the Mariana Islands, but few occur in substantial numbers. Common migrants include the Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula), Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), and Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis). Several other heron and duck species appear most years in small numbers. The Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) is the only regular migrant land bird. A similar assemblage of herons and waterfowl has been reported from the Ogasawara and Iwo Islands to the north. Many more species of migrant land birds occur in the Ogasawara and Iwo groups and in Palau to the southwest, which are closer to large land masses.
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    Allenbatrachus, A New Genus of Indo-Pacific Toadfish (Batrachoididae)
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07) Greenfield, David W.
    Allenbatrachus is described as a new genus for two Indo-West Pacific species previously known as Batrichthys grunniens (Linnaeus, 1758) and Batrachus reticulatus (Steindachner, 1870). It is included in the subfamily Batrachoidinae and is separated from other genera on the basis of the following combination of characters: a dorsocranium foramen behind each eye; two subopercular spines; no pectoral-fin axil foramina; raised flange on dorsal surface of maxilla; and protruding lower jaw. The two species of Allenbatrachus are redescribed and a neotype designated for Batrachus reticulatus.
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    A Revision of the Genus Sadleria (Blechnaceae)
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07) Palmer, Daniel D.
    The genus Sadleria is revised. Problems with nomenclature and species descriptions are reviewed and clarified. New keys are presented. A new species is described.
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    A Taxonomic Revision of the Endemic Hawaiian Lysimachia (Primulaceae) Including Three New Species
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07) Marr, Kendrick L. ; Bohm, Bruce A.
    A taxonomic revision of the endemic Lysimachia of the Hawaiian Islands was undertaken with the goal of clarifying species boundaries, especially within the L. hillebrandii/L. remyi complex of the previous taxonomic treatment. The endemic species appear to be monophyletic with Malesian affinities. The revision presented here is based upon observations of morphological characters. Sixteen species are recognized, of which three are probably extinct. Most species have narrow ecological preferences and are endemic to a single island. Species differ from each other most notably in the size, shape, and venation of the leaves; the size, shape, and pigmentation of the calyx and corolla lobes; and the presence or absence of viscid stems and leaves. Populations previously classified within L. hillebrandii or L. remyi differ in a number of characters not previously evaluated including vestiture, leaf color and venation, pedicel position and color, and calyx shape and color. Three new species, L. iniki, L. pendens, and L. scopulensis, are described. A key to species, species descriptions, and distribution maps are provided.
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    New and Historical Plant Introductions, and Potential Pests in the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07) Swenson, Ulf ; Stuessy, Tod F. ; Baeza, Marcelo ; Crawford, Daniel J.
    In 1935 the Juan Fernandez Islands in the Pacific Ocean were declared a Chilean National Park to protect the unique flora and fauna, and later given status as a Biosphere Reserve by IUCN. Exotic plants deliberately and inadvertently introduced are threats to the natural vegetation. We review the introduced and/or adventitious flora of the archipelago in this paper. We report 21 recent arrivals, eight earlier introductions from the mid-1700s to the 1900s that have not been recognized before in the flora, six misidentified taxa, and five taxa present earlier but now reported from another island, resulting in a total of 227 introduced and naturalized species. Each species is discussed briefly with its native distribution, uses, first arrival in Chile and/or the archipelago, and comments on conservation impact. Identities of some previously cited taxa are clarified (e.g., Cupressus macrocarpa appears to be a misidentification for two other species of the same genus). Other noxious weeds known worldwide have recently been deliberately introduced, especially as garden ornamentals. Two of the most serious potential pests are the bird-dispersed Lantana camara and Lonicera japonica. We recommend immediate eradication of these two taxa and restriction on reintroduction. A conservation program emphasizing strong physical and biological methods is urgently needed to control the introduced species.
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    Terrestrial Nutrient and Sediment Fluxes to the Coastal Waters of West Maui, Hawai'i
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07) Soicher, A.J. ; Peterson, F.L.
    Water-quality degradation is often linked to land use practices in adjacent and upstream areas. Such linkages are here explored for the Lahaina District of Maui, Hawai'i, where severe algae blooms in 1989 and 1991 prompted public concern and a subsequent search for the factors contributing to algal growth. Because we expected that elevated nutrient levels might play a role in the blooms, this study examined the nutrient and sediment budgets from terrestrial sources entering the coastal waters. Although our work did not show any definitive causal relationship between algal growth and terrestrial nutrient and sediment loading, it clearly established that the principal agricultural activities in the area of sugarcane and pineapple cultivation contribute elevated loads of nutrients and sediments to the coastal waters. Likewise, disposal of treated domestic sewage effluent into subsurface injection wells contributes substantial nutrient loads to the coastal waters. Conversely, golf courses appear to have negligible impacts on the nutrient and sediment loading of coastal waters in the area. Finally, although groundwater discharges substantially greater annual nutrient loads than streamflow, the groundwater discharge is fairly evenly distributed in time and is dispersed over nearly 25 km of shoreline. Streamflow, however, often discharges intensely for short periods of time at a few discrete locations, and thus may have substantial impact locally on coastal water quality.
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    Benthic Communities on Lo'ihi Submarine Volcano Reflect High-Disturbance Environment
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07) Grigg, Richard W.
    Bottom surveys and collections on Lo'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i, revealed two distinct and recurrent benthic communities. One comprises bacterial mats and is closely associated with hydrothermal vents. The other consists of dense aggregations of megabenthos-octocorals, sponges, hydroids, and black corals-all normal inhabitants of nonvolcanic hard-bottom habitats at comparable depths in the Hawaiian Islands. The bacterial mats are devoid of specialized megafauna and are found in summit areas or rift peaks where diffuse low-temperature hydrothermal vents are common. The absence of megafauna there may be due to extreme environmental conditions produced by vent waters that contain no oxygen and extraordinarily high concentrations ofCO2 (pH = 5.5) and trace metals. At greater depths, from 200-300 to 1,000m below the summit, dense aggregations of gorgonians and other megafauna exist but are uncommon. Aggregations are restricted to stable outcrops of pillow basalts (kipukas). Surrounding areas are covered by talus and are virtually devoid of benthic organisms. Their rarity may be due to instability of the substratum caused by frequent slumping and debris avalanching (mass wasting). Both bacterial mat and deep flank megabenthic communities reflect a high-disturbance environment.
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    51:3 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1997-07)
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