Social-Technical Issues in Organizational Information Technologies

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    Simulating the Impact of Cooperation and Management Strategies on Stress and Economic Performance
    ( 2019-01-08) Daňa, Josef ; Kopeček, Ivan ; Ošlejšek, Radek ; Plhák, Jaromír
    In this paper, we study the impact of the management evaluation strategies that are aimed at achieving a balance between rewarding the cooperative behavior of employees and their economic performance. We developed a model in the NetLogo simulation environment that incorporates many socioeconomic aspects such as the stress, effort, and productivity of employees as well as insights into managing cooperativeness and the performance of individual workers. We conducted a series of simulations, each representing a 10-year lifespan of an organization, and the results reveal that organizations achieve the highest performance when management prefers to reward the cooperative behavior of employees instead of performance. The detailed results are provided and discussed in the paper, as are the future directions that the research could take as well as possible extensions of the model presented.
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    Prioritizing Tasks in Code Repair: A Psychological Exploration of Computer Code
    ( 2019-01-08) Alarcon, Gene ; Jessup, Sarah A. ; Wood, David W. ; Ryan, Tyler J. ; Capiola, August
    The current study explored the influence of task prioritization on how computer programmers reviewed and edited code. Forty-five programmers recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk downloaded and edited a computer program in C#. Programmers were given instructions to review the code and told to prioritize either the reputation, transparency, or performance aspects of the code, or were given no prioritization instruction. Code changes and remarks about their changes to the code were analyzed with a between-within multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicate prioritizing an aspect of the code leads to increased performance on that aspect, but with deficits to other aspects of the code. Managers may want programmers to prioritize certain aspects of code depending on the stage of development of the software (i.e., testing, rollout, etc.). However, managers should also be cognizant of the effects task prioritization has on programmer perceptions of the code as a whole.
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    The Creativity Model of Age and Innovation with IT: How to Counteract the Effects of Age Stereotyping on User Innovation
    ( 2019-01-08) Tams, Stefan ; Dulipovici, Alina Maria
    Older users shy away from the post-adoptive use of information technologies much more often than their younger counterparts. This situation is alarming given that the workforce is aging rapidly and that organizational technologies are proliferating at the same time. Yet there is no clear explanation for older users’ lower post-adoptive use, which limits practitioners’ understanding of what can be done to assist them. This lack of understanding is especially problematic vis-à-vis user innovation. Successful firms like Microsoft, 3M, or Nike encourage their employees to innovate with IT in order to realize the full potential of their existing IT infrastructure. Thus the present paper advances the creativity model of age and innovation with IT. This model indicates that age differences in user innovation are accounted for by negative age stereotypes and their impacts on creative IT self-efficacy. The model further proposes that the indirect effect of age through creative IT self-efficacy on user innovation can be lessened by contextual factors, namely job control, IT support, and user enjoyment. The paper offers much-needed implications both for managers and for systems designers.
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    Self-Organizing is not Self-Managing: A Case Study about Governance Challenges in an Agile IT Unit and its Scrum Projects
    ( 2019-01-08) Simard, Magali ; Lapalme, James
    This paper presents a case study on the internal governance of Scrum projects and their relationships with their organization’s governance within a rich research setting: an IT agile unit and its mature Scrum project teams. This study reveals ambiguities about the meaning of self-organizing versus self-managing, and the associated challenges for governance processes, especially those related to HR governance, which can lead to unresolved issues and conflicts. Interestingly, these ambiguities are also found in the current IS literature, which rarely differentiates self-organizing from self-managing in agile projects. Thus, this paper enhances our knowledge of governance processes and associated challenges, particularly for mature Scrum project teams, which are still little covered in the IS literature.
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    IT Infrastructures Maintenance and Evolution in Public Sector Organizations: Main Challenges
    ( 2019-01-08) Bourdeau, Simon ; Coulon, Thibaut ; Vieru, Dragos ; Boissieres, Elodie
    In the face of rapid and constant technological evolution, the management of IT infrastructures in an effective and sustainable manner represents a major challenge for any organization and even more for public sector organizations (PSOs) who often lack IT resources and expertise. PSOs are social and economic actors who must spend taxpayers' money in a responsible and efficient manner. Despite the importance of these challenges for practitioners and academics alike, there is a limited number of studies in this field. The present study seeks to fill this gap through a systematic review of the literature followed by a Delphi study. Outcomes of this literature review are presented along with preliminary results of a Delphi study realized with 40 IT infrastructure experts.