Managing the Dynamics of Platforms and Ecosystems

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    Visualizing the Evolution of the AI Ecosystem
    ( 2021-01-05) Basole, Rahul
    This study examines the evolution of the complex, emerging artificial intelligence (AI) ecosystem. Grounded in multiple theories, we introduce a conceptual framework that maps emerging ecosystem dynamics in terms of firm funding and exits. Using a curated dataset of nearly 10,000 ventures and 31,000+ funding/exit activities, we visualize the trajectory of 15 core technology segments of the AI ecosystem as connected scatterplots and compute several salient path measures for each, including path length, velocity, number of loops, and L-shapes. Our visual analysis reveals several path patterns across the four quadrants of our framework and highlights the evolutionary growth and consolidation across segments. We discuss our findings in terms of initial conditions (market size, funding, technology hype), platformication, and geographic concentration. Our study contributes to our data-driven understanding of ecosystem dynamics.
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    The Emergence and Dynamics of Electronic Health Records – A Longitudinal Case Analysis of Multi-Sided Platforms from an Interoperability Perspective
    ( 2021-01-05) Stegemann, Lars ; Gersch, Martin
    Emerging health record platforms are interesting examples of the ongoing process of digitalization and the great opportunities they provide for innovation and additional services. Incumbent players are under increasing pressure from new entrants to offer their customers a user experience they have become familiar with through platforms such as Apple and Google. The emergence of the digital German health record is shown as a case-study, harnessing a longitudinal database and adopting a process-sensitive perspective. Important events are structured into individual episodes and phases and discussed in-depth. The study shows how platform owners of health records respond to changes in the highly regulated healthcare system and its digitalization in Germany. Contrasting with extant knowledge about interoperability as a relevant precondition for platforms, our study shows the important role played by interoperability as a design parameter for emerging platforms, which results in seven interoperability challenges for respective stakeholders.
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    The Effects of Control Mechanisms on Complementors’ Behavioral Intentions: An Empirical Study of Reward-Based Crowdfunding Platforms
    ( 2021-01-05) Croitor, Evgheni ; Werner, Dominick ; Benlian, Alexander
    Although Information Systems research has been increasingly exploring the role of control mechanisms on digital platforms, empirical research on the effects of control mechanisms on complementors’ behavioral intentions in platform ecosystems is sparse. Control mechanisms refer to measures employed by platform providers to influence desirable behaviors of complementors and thus to manage dynamics, growth, and evolution of their digital platforms. Drawing on IS control literature and goal attainment theory, we conducted an online survey with 116 complementors from two major reward-based crowdfunding platforms, Kickstarter and Indiegogo. Our findings reveal that input control (self control) decreases (increases) complementors’ intention to stay on their respective digital platform. Furthermore, we shed light on the role of complementors’ perceived effort, perceived usefulness and satisfaction in shaping these relationships. Thus, our findings contribute to the literature on digital platforms in general and control mechanisms in particular.
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    Taxonomy of Digital Platforms: A Business Model Perspective
    ( 2021-01-05) Staub, Nicola ; Haki, Kazem ; Aier, Stephan ; Winter, Robert
    Digital platforms (DPs) – technical core artifacts augmented by peripheral third-party complementary resources – facilitate the interaction and collaboration of different actors through highly-efficient resource matching. As DPs differ significantly in their configurations and applications, it is important from both a descriptive and a design perspective to define classes of DPs. As an intentionally designed artifact, every classification pursues a certain purpose. In this research, the purpose is to classify DPs from a business model perspective, i.e. to identify DP clusters that each share a similar business model type. We follow Nickerson et al.’s (2013) method for taxonomy development. By validating the conceptually derived design dimensions with ten DP cases, we identify platform structure and platform participants as the major clustering constituent characteristics. Building on the proposed taxonomy, we derive four DP archetypes that follow distinct design configurations, namely business innovation platforms, consumer innovation platforms, business exchange platforms and consumer exchange platforms.
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    Positioning Strategies in Emerging Industrial Ecosystems for Industry 4.0
    ( 2021-01-05) Piller, Frank ; Van Dyck, Marc ; Lüttgens, Dirk ; Diener, Kathleen
    Many incumbents have the ambition to become ecosystem leaders when transitioning an established business model into a platform-based one. Prior research predominately has studied established consumer markets. Our study extends the empirical knowledge on ecosystem dynamics with a focus on platforms providing services based on (shared) industrial data. In a longitudinal study, we investigate factors influencing this transition and study in particular how industrial incumbents balance value creation and capture during ecosystem emergence. In this stage, managing openness is a key strategic decision. While openness is required for value creation, the complexity and physicality of the industrial setting hampers value capture. We identify control points to manage the tension between value creation & capture and derive different transition journeys. Lastly, we propose that in industrial markets, multiple platforms can co-exist in the same ecosystem, complementing the established "winner-takes-all" paradigm. Our research identifies situations where incumbents intentionally forfeit a leadership position in favor of joining an alliance-driven ecosystem