Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies (Lycophytes) Collection

Permanent URI for this collection

View Checklist of Hawaiian Ferns

A digital reproduction of Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies (2016). This publication is the first comprehensive survey of Hawaii's ferns to be published in more than 100 years. The book covers endemic, indigenous, and naturalized ferns and fern allies (including rare and endangered taxa), providing dichotomous keys, basionyms and synonyms, technical descriptions and distributions, a glossary, and statistical information. The author addresses unresolved taxonomic problems and offers suggestions for future research. He includes information from Hawaiian folklore and mythology, describes uses of ferns by native Hawaiians, and updates Hawaiian common names. More than 100 line drawings illustrate all 222 species, varieties, and forms, and some hybrids. The volume is based on extensive fieldwork, studies of herbarium collections worldwide, and consultations with pteridologists, local ecologists, and collectors. It provides the much-needed scientific basis for a new, worldwide appreciation of Hawaiian ferns and fern allies and for major efforts to protect and conserve them. This well-researched and highly readable book will be enthusiastically received by amateur and professional naturalists, fern enthusiasts, and professional botanists.




Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 38
  • Item
    A web-based interactive key to the Hawaiian ferns
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2011], 2011-08) Vernon, Amanda Lee
    The Hawaiian Islands are well known for having one of the highest documented percentages of endemic plants in the world. Hawaiian ferns represent a relatively large percentage of the endemic flora with approximately 79% of the native Hawaiian fern species considered endemic. In addition, at least 37 species are naturalized aliens. Over half of these naturalized species have become common and abundant and therefore have invasive potential. To help prevent the spread of invasive ferns and preserve native ecosystems it is critical that species be identified correctly and quickly. Current identification can be difficult due to outdated nomenclature, few illustrations, and esoteric terminology. As the number of fern and lycophyte species increases and taxonomic changes occur, a more efficient and easily accessible method of identification is needed to help slow the introduction of alien taxa and to preserve native ecosystems. An interactive identification key of the Hawaiian ferns can provide students, ecologists, and land managers with a better method of identification. For this thesis I have created an interactive key for all 204 taxa of the Hawaiian ferns using Lucid v.3.5 software. The interactive key includes all previously recorded native and naturalized taxa and incorporates newly described species and recently discovered naturalized species. To assist in identification, multiple images of diagnostic characters were compiled and incorporated into the key. Fact sheets were composed using Fact Sheet Fusion software. The interactive key is freely available through the University of Hawaiʻi's Joseph F. Rock Herbarium website: http://www.herbarium.hawaii.edu/lucid/ferns/introduction.html
  • Item
    Role of coarse woody debris in carbon storage and seedling distribution in Hawaiian montane wet forests
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2012], 2012-08) Iwashita, Darcey Kimiko
    Dead trees and tree ferns, known as coarse woody debris (CWD), play an integral role in carbon storage and seedling distribution in forests. The primary objectives of this study were to determine whether CWD carbon pools varied across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient and whether seedling distribution was associated with CWD and environmental conditions in Hawaiian montane wet forests. Coarse woody debris carbon pools were negatively correlated with MAT, indicating that CWD may become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere as MAT rises. Seedling densities were greater on CWD than soil, highest on bare and bryophyte cover, and negatively correlated with litter cover, plant available water, and N, Al, Zn, Mn, Fe, Mg, and S availability. These results demonstrate that CWD is an important carbon pool and microsite for seedlings that may decrease with warming, which has large implications for carbon dynamics and future forest composition.
  • Item
    Conservation of the endangered Hawaiian fern 'ihi'ihilauākea (Marsilea villosa) : a synthesis of experimental restoration, community ecology, and population genetics
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2012], 2012-08) Chau, Marian Mai-tse
    Conservation of endangered plants is a critical step in maintaining and restoring global biodiversity. Management efforts such as in situ conservation and restoration through plant reintroduction are more likely to be successful if decisions are based on carefully designed scientific research. Marsilea villosa is an endangered, endemic Hawaiian fern with only seven remaining populations on the islands of O'ahu and Moloka'i restricted to ephemerally flooding dry lowlands. Among its uncommon traits are long-lived sporocarps (i.e., highly modified leaves with drought resistant walls containing sporangia and spores), a requirement of flood and drought to complete its sexual life cycle, and extensive vegetative growth. In this dissertation I conducted three studies to answer the following questions: 1) Which management techniques best facilitate growth of M. villosa in outplanting for reintroduction? 2) Which ecological factors affect the growth of M. villosa under field conditions? 3) How much genetic variation exists within and among M. villosa populations? 4) What are the implications of these studies for how M. villosa is managed? I conducted a restoration experiment to evaluate the effects of light, flooding, weeding, and their interactions on the growth of M. villosa outplanted in a common-garden. I found that the combination of flooding and shade treatments promoted the greatest increase in M. villosa growth, and that the effects of this interaction grew stronger over time. After drought occurred, shade also increased M. villosa growth in the absence of weeding. In a three-year field study, I examined ecological factors that influenced M. villosa growth and confirmed that shade and flooding have positive synergistic effects, while the negative effects of associated non-native species differ with functional groups. In a population genetic study, the majority of genetic variation was found at the subpopulation level, but there was also genetic structure that showed strong differentiation among some populations and between the two islands. This research provides several explicit management recommendations that will increase the chances of success in conservation and restoration of Marsilea villosa, and a model upon which to base restoration of the more resilient endangered species in Hawaiʻi and worldwide.
  • Item
    Rehabilitation of ‘ōhi’a-swordfern (Metrosideros polymorpha-Nephrolepis multiflora) woodlands following the Kupukupu Fire, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
    (Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 2008-09) McDaniel, Sierra ; Loh, Rhonda ; Dale, Susan ; Smith, Kimberly ; Vaidya, Maya
    The 2002 Kupukupu Fire burned more than 3,367 acres (1363 hectares) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Four hundred and fifty-five acres (184 hectares) were in transitionally dry to mesic ‘ōhi’a swordfern woodland of which portions had previously burned in 1972, 1981, and 1992. Based on past studies, the effects of this fire were expected to result in a reduction of abundance and diversity of native species. In contrast, alien swordfern was expected to quickly re-establish. Wildfire was expected to recur in this area given the abundance of fine fuels provided by alien swordfern and grasses, extended dry periods, and continued ignition sources provided by nearby lava flows. Consequently, park managers adopted an aggressive approach to restore native species by a combination of seeding and planting into the burn. Establishment was focused primarily on fire-tolerant species. Restoration efforts began in October 2002 and continued to March 2005. Approximately 1,500 worker days were spent on the project, propagating plants, planting, seeding and monitoring individuals in the field. Thirty-five native plant species were established in the burn area by a combination of direct seeding nearly 400,000 seeds and planting 12,646 individuals that were propagated in temporary greenhouses at HAVO. Average survivorship of planted individuals was greater than 50% and ranged between 10% and 92% by species. Of these, fourteen species had reached reproductive maturity by Fall 2006. Seeds of seven of the thirteen species seeded in the burn area germinated. Five species survived beyond the first year seedling stage. Continued monitoring will determine long term successional outcomes.
  • Item
    Shade adaptation of the Hawaiian tree-fern (Cibotium glaucum (Sm.) H. & A.)
    (Island Ecosystems IRP, U.S. International Biological Program, 1974-06) Friend, D.J.C.
    Shade adaptation of both gametophytes and sporophytes of a Hawaiian tree-fern, (Cibotium glaucum (Sm.) H. & A.) was measured by growing plants under a range of light intensities and at 2 daylengths, at 20 or 25°C. Three ecophysiological parameters of shade adaptation and adjustment, initial slope of the photosynthesis curve in response to increasing light intensity (α), rate of light saturated photosynthesis (PN max), and rate of photosynthesis at the intensity given during growth (PN growth), were determined by infra•red gas analysis. Both sporophytes and gametophytes showed shade adaptation by a decline in α with increasing irradiation during growth and shade adjustment by a light saturation value for shade-grown plants that was well above the level of light at which the plants were grown. Sporophytes exhibited one feature of sun plants; PN max increased with increasing irradiation during growth. Morphological adaptations to low light intensity included a narrowing of the gametophyte, higher chlorophyll contents on a fresh weight basis of both gametophytes and sporophytes, and reduced thickness of sporophyte fronds. A greater total frond area of shade•grown sporophytes was brought about by a greater area of individual fronds and a longer retention time of fronds. Rates of frond production and expansion were little affected by light intensity.
  • Item
    Genecological studies of Hawaiian ferns: reproductive biology of pioneer and non-pioneer species on the island of Hawaii
    (Island Ecosystems IRP, U.S. International Biological Program, 1974-02) Lloyd, Robert M.
    Sporophytes from natural populations of ferns occupying pioneer lava and mature rainforest habitats on the island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, were investigated to determine their mating system and frequency of recessive lethal genes (genetic load). Species dominant in pioneer lava habitats were found to have intragametophytic mating systems and to be devoid of lethal genotypes. Species from intermediate and mature rainforest habitats exhibited complex intergametophytic mating systems and higher levels of genetic load. It is suggested that natural selection has favored intragametophytic mating and homozygosity in species of less diverse and less competitive pioneer habitats and intergametophytic mating and heterozygosity in species of more mature habitats.
  • Item
  • Item
    Population Structure of the Hawaiian Tree Fern Cibotium chamissoi Across Intact and Degraded Forests Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [December 2007], 2007-12) Arcand, Naomi N. ; Wester, Lyndon ; Geography and Environment
    Because the population status of Cibotium on Oʻahu is currently unknown, this biogeographical study examines the population structure, abundance, and potential restoration importance of the species Cibotium chamissoi across a spectrum of "intact" and "degraded" forest communities in the Waiʻanae and Koʻolau Mountains of Oʻahu. The terms intact and degraded are inherently subjective, and for the purposes of this study are defined and used as follows: "intact" forests are considered to be constituted mainly of native species and are presumed to function as a healthy ecological system; conversely "degraded" forests are those heavily invaded by alien species and/or feral pigs, with low cover of native species and possibly reduced native species diversity. The island of Oʻahu is the most developed of the Hawaiian Islands, and has undergone intense development and subsequent forest degradation. Intact native forests are generally confine'd to the upper elevations. Feral ungulates and alien weed species have degraded lower forests and even pockets of higher elevation forests. Therefore the mid-elevation zone is an ideal area to study the tropical island forest landscape because here is found a spectrum of intact native and degraded alien habitat where Cibotium chamissoi is the common tree fern species. It is accepted that Cibotium are truly an integral part of Hawaiian forest communities, therefore research is needed to determine if they are indeed disappearing from Oʻahu's forests. Though this study will not assess all of the potential causes for a possible Cibotium decline, we may be able to determine baseline patterns in abundance and population structure of C. chamissoi. By isolating the impacts of feral ungulates and examining the effects of environmental gradients on C. chamissoi populations on Oʻahu, at the very least, we may be able to identify or dismiss several possible explanations for variations in C. chamissoi recruitment and abundance.
  • Item
    The fern genus Nephrolepsis in Hawaii
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1982-06) Lamoureux, Charles H. ; Smith, Clifford W
  • Item
    The Fern Jungle Exclosure in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: 13 years without feral pigs in a rain forest
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1982-06) Higashino, P.K. ; Stone, C.P. ; Smith, Clifford W
Joseph F. Rock Herbarium. University of Hawaii at Manoa.