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    Crafting Identity in League of Legends - Purchases as a Tool to Achieve Desired Impressions
    ( 2019-01-08) Kordyaka, Bastian ; Hribersek, Sidney
    Within the industry of computer games, one game genre with increasing popularity is Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA). The diffusion of MOBAs within in the last decade is accompanied by a remarkable economic success and leaping revenues. This development is particularly interesting since MOBAs follow a free-to-play business model in which the majority of purchases consists of virtual items solely of hedonic value. Although research has already identified meaningful explanations in different contexts, an answer to the question what motivates players to purchase virtual items in the context of the most successful MOBA game League of Legends is still scarce. We use the social identity approach and self-presentation theory simultaneously to explain purchases, investigate predictors of self-presentation and explore effects of different self-presentation strategies (self-promotion, ingratiation, exemplification, intimidation, and supplication) on purchases. Results of our survey (n=209) indicate that identification and self-presentation hold the potential to explain purchases.
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    Investigating the Relationship Between User Ratings and Gamification – A Review of mHealth Apps in the Apple App Store and Google Play Store
    ( 2019-01-08) Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel ; Thiebes, Scott ; Sunyaev, Ali
    Gamification of mHealth apps is regarded as a promising approach to counteract decreasing long-term motivation of mHealth app users. Although gamification has received tremendous attention from researchers interested in mHealth apps, little is known about the extent to which gamification is used in real world mHealth apps today and whether the implementation of gamification actually pays off for app developers by, for example, positively influencing user ratings. Within this research, we investigate the implementation of game mechanics for 1,000 apps from the Apple App Store and Google Play Store as well as the potential relationship between the degree of gamification of mHealth apps and their user ratings. While our results highlight a high degree of adoption of gamification for both app stores, they also indicate a positive relationship between the degree of gamification of an mHealth app and user ratings for the Apple App Store only.
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    Game Mechanics on Social Live Streaming Service Websites
    ( 2019-01-08) Scheibe, Katrin ; Zimmer, Franziska
    Social live streaming services (SLSSs) are a worldwide rapidly growing kind of synchronous social networking services. Most of the SLSSs are highly gamified to increase the users’ engagement and to change their behavior, what consequently drives users to continue the usage of a service. This study examined 21 different SLSS websites on what gamification elements are used in each system. A literature review as well as a content analysis were conducted to gather the SLSS websites as well as game elements. Which gamification elements are implemented on social live streaming service websites? And, how many game mechanics can we find on each SLSS? Nearly every SLSS offers the opportunity to follow users and their activities, leaderboards to compare one’s ability and performance with other streamers, and gifts to reward others. SLSSs websites with the top browsing location China are the most gamified.
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    Towards a Typology of Urban Gamification
    ( 2019-01-08) Thibault, Mattia
    This paper aims to propose a tentative typology of urban play in the wider frame of gamification. based on the semiotic features of urban spaces and of human activities within them. The paper starts by outlining the existing perspectives on urban gamification and by describing the semiotic feature of urban spaces. Based on these, the author constructs a brief typology of urban gamification in regard of the kind of action undertaken and how it involves the city. Finally a few examples are analyzed by the mean of this typology , underlining how playful activities of urban gamification can influence the citizens’ perception and interpretation of the urban environment.
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    Escape Room as Game-Based Learning Process: Causation - Effectuation Perspective
    ( 2019-01-08) Järveläinen, Jonna ; Paavilainen - Mäntymäki, Eriikka
    Commercial escape rooms have provided inspiration for an increasing number of educational escape rooms, where students use their learning to solve problems and “escape” a room in a certain time. However, only few escape room studies have been published in the game-based learning research area, although it has been interested also in learning processes. In this study, we apply causation – effectuation theory to observe the learning processes of three student teams solving tasks in an escape room context. The escape room was part of an information systems science research methods course, where the learning process of 18 international students were observed on video recordings. Different learning processes were observed in the teams and causation – effectuation theory explained for example the experimental or instruction following team behavior.
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    Findings of an Experiment: Knowledge Retention in Gamified and Non-Gamified Workshops
    ( 2019-01-08) Putz, Lisa-Maria ; Treiblmaier, Horst
    Apathetic and poorly motivated students require educators to redesign their educational measures in order to create inspiring learning environments. One such educational measure is gamification, a new tool for active learning to improve students’ motivation, with the ultimate goal of increasing knowledge retention. In this paper we investigate the effects of gamification on short- and long-term knowledge gains. Moreover, the moderating effects of gender and school type are scrutinized. We conducted a longitudinal study with 384 students using three assessments at different times and compared the results from gamified and non-gamified workshops. Our findings indicate that gamification is an effective tool to increase students’ knowledge retention in the short term, but not necessarily in the long term. There was no significant effect of gender, but we found some preliminary evidence that school type might have a moderating effect on knowledge retention.
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    On the Role of Social Comparison Processes in Gamified Work Situations
    ( 2019-01-08) Huschens, Martin ; Rothlauf, Franz ; Rothe, Ricarda
    Gamification, which can be defined as the use of game-design elements in the workplace, is a relatively new approach to foster work motivation. However, especially gamification elements based on rankings and leader boards create transparency among users, which allows for interpersonal social comparison. This paper gives a possible explanation why and how gamification based on a ranking influences motivation and perceived pressure by taking social comparison processes into account. To this end, we conducted a factorial survey (N = 156) to examine the effects of introducing a game-design element (public leader board) in the workplace. We found that the provision of a ranking increases motivation, perceived pressure and social comparison behavior. Importantly, we found that the motivational and pressuring effects can be largely explained by the extent of individual’s social comparison behavior.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Gamification
    ( 2019-01-08) Hamari, Juho ; Koivisto, Jonna ; Parvinen, Petri