Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice

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    The Role of the Strategic Corporate Accelerator: Overcoming Obstacles of Corporate Startup Engagement
    ( 2022-01-04) Hornberger, Jacob ; Mack , Yannik ; Baiyere, Abayomi
    Despite the recent emergence of Corporate Accelerators (CA), scholars and managers have questioned their effectiveness. This critique arises from the superficial and inadequate design recommendations that have left many CAs faltering. We explore how strategic CAs in the context of digital transformation can be designed to become effective open innovation units by offering a new conceptualization of the role of the strategic CA. Our multi-case study of four European CAs with a focus on IT startups reveals three underlying obstacles: (1) missing engagement of corporate employees, (2) difficulty of sourcing the right startups, and (3) differences between large firms and startups. Based on these, we propose a framework that captures the role of the strategic CA in correspondence with the identified obstacles. By emphasizing the CA’s role, we propose three essential tasks (motivating, matchmaking, and mediating) that are pertinent in the relationships between stakeholders in a CA ecosystem.
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    The Nexus of Design Thinking and Intrapreneurship: Insights from a large-scale empirical assessment
    ( 2022-01-04) Marx, Carolin ; Haskamp, Thomas ; De Paula, Danielly ; Uebernickel, Falk
    Although the nexus of Design Thinking (DT) and corporate entrepreneurship being heralded as promising, the concrete compositional architecture of how DT manifests in practice has received limited scholarly attention. Drawing on the argument that DT can facilitate intrapreneurial innovation by enabling effective cognition, we developed a multidimensional assessment model that measures DT for intrapreneurial innovation in an organizational context and applied it via an online survey to 547 organizations of different sizes and industries. An analysis of the dimensional and sub-dimensional values obtained from the quantitative survey data in general, and concerning industry and firm size types in detail, enriches our understanding of DT’s manifestation in practice. We provide practitioners with a useful tool to assess, benchmark, plan, analyze, and communicate the use of DT for intrapreneurial innovation, and guide future DT and entrepreneurship researchers seeking practitioner-relevant insights with nine propositions derived from our observations.
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    Pivoting Strategies: A Study of Pivot Severity, Investor Reliance, and Revenue among Startups
    ( 2022-01-04) Bandera, Cesar ; Thomas, Ellen
    “Pivoting”, or a strategic shift in the direction of a venture, may be one of the most recognizable terms in entrepreneurship. Although this term has entered the entrepreneurial lexicon, very little is known about the causal impact that pivoting has on new venture performance. Some studies suggest that pivoting can have positive effects on performance while others suggest that executing too many pivots can adversely impact it. This paper seeks to better understand the impact of multiple pivots on the likelihood of revenue by investigating the moderating roles of pivot severity (the degree to which a pivot represent a market shift) and reliance on investors. We investigate the impact of multiple pivots on revenue, distinguishing between high-tech vs low-tech startups and between mild vs severe pivots. We also investigate the impact that equity investments have on the pivot-revenue relationship of high-tech firms. Using change in a venture’s NAICS code as a proxy for pivoting, we show an inverted-U relationship between magnitude of pivots and the likelihood of revenue among Kauffman Firm Survey participants. Among high-tech firms, this relationship differs based on the firm’s reliance on investors. This longitudinal empirical study on the relationship between pivot magnitude, investor reliance, and revenue aims to attract attention to this important topic of entrepreneurship, and help the entrepreneur facing the difficult decision of whether or not to pivot.
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    Investigating an Incubator for Digital innovation in Cultural Heritage
    ( 2022-01-04) Uppström, Elin ; Lönn, Carl-Mikael
    In this case study we investigate a cultural heritage incubator, using theoretical constructs suggested suitable for the study of digital innovation in open-ended value landscapes or ecosystems. Interviews are conducted with eight entrepreneurial firms participating in the incubator, who develop digital innovations within the cultural heritage domain, representatives from museums, also a document study and active participation in incubator activities has been utilized for data collection. A content analysis was conducted using a deductive approach where theoretical constructs from digital innovation literature were used to derive themes connected to concepts of value creation and value capture, value co-creation and co-destruction as well as value spaces paths and recombination. Recommendations are made and the ability of existing theoretical constructs to capture the specific characteristics of the case are made.
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    Institutions and Maker Entrepreneurship
    ( 2022-01-04) Li, Zhouxuan (Fanny) ; Eberhart, Robert ; Eesley, Charles
    The nascent research on the maker movement highlights the implicit assumptions embedded in the literature on entrepreneurship and innovation based on a model of closed traditional product development. Instead, the maker culture emphasizes inclusiveness, openness, sharing, and collaboration. To date, we know little about how institutional-level factors (such as intellectual property rights protection, maker culture and access to makerspaces) impact the probability of a maker hobbyist becoming an entrepreneur. We leverage the institutional perspective to examine the differing regulatory, normative and cultural elements with a cross-national study. Thus, via a leading maker community, Hackster IO, we collected data from surveying 3,139 global makers from 99 countries during 2016, providing the first quantitative evidence about the maker movement's impact on firm creation. Our results suggest that having access to makerspaces positively correlates with the likelihood of being a maker entrepreneur. Intellectual property rights protection demonstrated an inverted-U shape relationship with being an entrepreneur. This paper provides the first large quantitative evidence on the wide existence of maker entrepreneurship across the world and how intuitional factors impact the creation of maker-founded firms in different societies.
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    Collaborate to Innovate: Utilizing Design Patterns Cards for Accelerating the Digital Transformation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
    ( 2022-01-04) Gerling, Christoph ; Bickel, Fabrice ; Haskamp, Thomas ; Uebernickel, Falk
    As more and more organizations reach the limits of their internal capabilities to deal with the challenges induced by digital transformation, they are increasingly forced to seek external digitalization opportunities. In particular, small and medium enterprises are affected by this due to their limited human and financial resources. Currently, there is a lack of overview of options considering limited internal digital capabilities and resources. Thus, we choose an action design research approach to develop an external digitalization activity navigator. As a result, we derive five design principles for successful navigation and 30 activities, which are presented as design pattern cards. Our work can help practitioners and scholars alike to structure external digitalization activities.
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    A scoping review on the practices of open innovation
    ( 2022-01-04) Guimarães, Marina ; Tortorella, Guilherme
    The growing pressure for innovation has led companies to seek new ways to manage and acquire knowledge. Thus, innovation management is a critical activity for all companies and open innovation is a means that aims to commercially exploit innovation opportunities. The literature on open innovation has grown, however, there are still research gaps in terms of practices, their operationalization and results in organizations. This article aims to identify the main OI practices, characteristics and barriers for its implementation and its impact on the company's performance. As a result, this study helps managers to implement OI practices, taking into account their barriers and contextual factors, in addition to generating research opportunities.
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    An Ontology-Based Knowledge Modelling for Sustainable Entrepreneurship Domain
    ( 2022-01-04) Konys, Agnieszka
    Sustainable entrepreneurship (SE) focuses on entrepreneurial activities taking into account environmental and social issues, not only by paying attention to economic issues. While the concept of SE is a prominent stream for modern entrepreneurship, the following questions arise: how enterprises can run a business and implement Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and which factors can support or constrain SE? Research on SE suggests that that identifying and implementing sustainable development opportunity is more complex for the entrepreneur than the recognition of non-sustainable opportunity. Therefore this article contributes to the advancement of sustainable entrepreneurship research by offering an ontology-based approach collecting factors from the current literature review and incorporating different lines of research that can influence further sustainable entrepreneurial strategies. The applied research methodology exploits a previously elaborated bibliometric analysis which included a systematic literature review conducted using the PRISMA methodology. The condensed immense amount of bibliometric information and further co-occurrence analysis of keywords determining SE factors is a basis for constructing ontology-based model. This model offers a classification schema of sustainable entrepreneurship factors as well as a tool performing knowledge from being machine-readable to machine-understandable.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice
    ( 2022-01-04) Bartolacci, Michael ; Passerini, Katia ; Bandera, Cesar