Pacific Science Volume 23, Number 2, 1969

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    A Positive Chitosan Test for Spicules in the Anthozoan Order, Pennatulacea
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-04) Shapeero, William
    In the coelenterate seapen colony, Leioptilus guerneyi, two types of minute spicules have been found; these give the characteristic chitosan tests indicative of chitin. Chitin is essentially unknown in the Anthozoa. The definition of the order Pennatulacea requires the addition of chitinous spicules to the calcareous spicules already described for the group.
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    A New Species of Hermit Crab, Pylopagurus diegensis (Decapoda: Anomura), with a Key for the Genus in the Eastern Pacific
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-04) Scanland, Thomas B. ; Hopkins, Thomas S.
    During a study of the decapod Crustacea of the San Diego region, a new species of pagurid crab of the genus Pylopagurus was encountered. The following account is a description of this species, including a comparison with a closely related species of Pylopagurus in the eastern Pacific and a comparison with the recently created genus Benthopagurus Wass of the western Atlantic.
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    A Coral-Eating Barnacle
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-04) Ross, Arnold ; Newman, William A.
    Many rock barnacles form close associations with other organisms, yet none are known to have become wholly parasitic. In a study of balanids inhabiting corals, we encountered a species-Pyrgoma monticulariae Gray, 1831-that depends on the coral for both habitat and food. In achieving this relationship it has gained control over certain metabolic activities of the coral, including calcification, proliferation of coenenchyme, and nematocyst discharge. While balanids became associated with corals 25 million years ago, evidence suggests that this wholly parasitic relationship has developed within the last 10 million years.
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    A New Species of Saccocirrus (Archiannelida) from the West Coast of North America
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-04) Gray, John S.
    A new species of archiannelid, Saccocirrus eroticus, from shell gravel from Orcas Island, Washington, U.S.A., is described. The species is characterized by being 1 to 2.2 cm long when adult and comprising up to 125 body segments. It has unilateral gonads which begin in segment 13 and run to an achaetous region at the pygidial end; thus it has over 100 segments bearing reproductive organs. The achaetous region is composed of 4 to 11 segments. There are two tail lappets bearing 7 to 22 papillate ridges. The internal anatomy is described in detail and compared with other known species of Saccocirrus. Eggs released from females showed normal spiral cleavage and trocophores developed after 24 hours. The relationship of the saccocirrids to the protodrilid archiannelids and orbiniid polychaetes is discussed in relation to feeding and locomotory structure and function.
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    The Osmotic and Chloride Regulative Capacities of Five Hawaiian Decapod Crustaceans
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-04) Kamemoto, Fred I. ; Kato, Kenneth N.
    The ionic and osmotic regulative capacities of crustacean species have been described by a number of investigators (see reviews by Krogh, 1939; Robertson, 1953, 1960; Ramsay, 1954; Beadle, 1957; Lockwood, 1962, 1964; Potts and Parry, 1964). The most obvious and general conclusion which can be drawn from these investigations is that the aquatic crustaceans display varying degrees of responses to osmotic stress conditions. The animals' capacities to cope with the osmotic changes in the environment range from non-regulation or osmoconforming (the internal osmotic concentration maintained isosmotic to the environmental concentration) to hypo- and hyperosmotic regulation. The majority of the crustaceans appear to have the ability to regulate to some degree, either osmotically or ionically, within this wide range of regulatory capacities.
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