Personal and Population Health Technologies in Disease Surveillance

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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Personal and Population Health Technologies in Disease Surveillance
    ( 2023-01-03) Goldfine, Charlotte ; Chai, Peter R. ; Lai, Jeffrey ; Carreiro, Stephanie
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    Augmented Reality Technology to Facilitate Proficiency in Emergency Medical Procedures
    ( 2023-01-03) O'Connor, Laurel ; Zamani, Sepahrad ; Porter, Liam ; Mcgeorge, Nicolette ; Latiff, Susan ; Boardman, Timothy ; Loconte, Matthew ; Weiner, Michael ; Mcgarry, Eileen ; Pina, Felipe ; Acevedo Herman, Jorge ; Milsten, Andrew ; Reznek, Martin ; Broach, John
    Background: Augmented reality (AR) conveys an experience during which the user’s real-time environment is enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information; it is being investigated as a solution to enhance medical education and clinical practice. There is little literature on its utility for teaching emergency procedures. Methods: A within-subjects trial was performed comparing traditional training to AR guidance for two emergency procedures. Lay-subjects and emergency medical technicians received video training and AR guidance for performing bag-valve-mask ventilation and needle-decompression. Subjects performed both procedures in a simulation setting after each training modality. Subject performance, acceptability and usability were analyzed. Results: There was no difference in procedural performance between lay or EMT subjects for AR training, and no difference in subject-reported usefulness between the AR and control training. Conclusion: AR mediated guidance for emergency medical procedures is feasible and efficacious. Subject performance after AR training was statistically undistinguishable from a didactic educational modality.
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    Towards Device Agnostic Detection of Stress and Craving in Patients with Substance Use Disorder
    ( 2023-01-03) Shrestha, Sloke ; Stapp, Joshua ; Taylor, Melissa ; Leach, Rebecca ; Carreiro, Stephanie ; Indic, Premananda
    Novel technologies have great potential to improve the treatment of individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) and to reduce the current high rate of relapse (i.e. return to drug use). Wearable sensor-based systems that continuously measure physiology can provide information about behavior and opportunities for real-time interventions. We have previously developed an mHealth system which includes a wearable sensor, a mobile phone app, and a cloud-based server with embedded machine learning algorithms which detect stress and craving. The system functions as a just-in-time intervention tool to help patients de-escalate and as a tool for clinicians to tailor treatment based on stress and craving patterns observed. However, in our pilot work we found that to deploy the system to diverse socioeconomic populations and to increase usability, the system must be able to work efficiently with cost-effective and popular commercial wearable devices. To make the system device agnostic, methods to transform the data from a commercially available wearable for use in algorithms developed from research grade wearable sensor are proposed. The accuracy of these transformations in detecting stress and craving in individuals with SUD is further explored.
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    Towards the Design of a Gamified Application to Increase Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Vietnam
    ( 2023-01-03) Wortberg, Alexander ; Perscheid, Guido ; Moormann, Jürgen ; Vo, Luan Nq
    Despite being treatable, tuberculosis (TB) remains among the most common causes of death worldwide. One of the countries with the highest-burden from TB is Vietnam. A major factor responsible for the high mortality rate is nonadherence to medication and the subsequent outbreak of multidrug-resistant forms of TB, which are harder to treat and show a lower chance of survival. Existing measures to increase medication adherence focus on monitoring medication intake without considering the reasons for nonadherence – the stigmatization of TB patients. Addressing this problem, we design a concept for a patient-centered, gamified application aiming to reduce stigmatization and empower TB patients. Based on a literature review and interviews with experts from science and practice, including former TB patients, we elaborate on the functionalities and gamified elements of the application. Eventually, we present the design concept for the application based on Lui et al.’s framework for designing a gamified information system.
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    Emergency Medicine Provider Impressions of Novel SMS-Based Toxicology Module
    ( 2023-01-03) Ebersole, Joseph ; Askman, Noah ; Chai, Peter R. ; Goldfine, Charlotte
    The diagnosis and treatment of common toxicologic disorders is an area of core content that emergency medicine (EM) resident physicians and physician assistants (PA) are required to demonstrate competence in order to become proficient practicing clinicians. Even when EM programs have a required toxicology elective, learners do not encounter all core toxicologic presentations. To supplement these knowledge gaps, many toxicology curriculums rely on internet learning modules which have variable uptake in practice. With remote learning and education becoming more common, we aim to perform a need-based assessment of EM resident and PA toxicology education and use the results to develop and deploy a text message-based, interactive toxicology supplemental program for EM residents and PAs and measure its acceptability and preliminary effectiveness to teach core toxicology principles.