Volume 52 - 2020: Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    In Memoriam Betsy Harrison Gagne (1947–2020) Celebrating a True Force of Nature: Betsy Harrison Gagne’s Gifts to Hawaii and its Native Ecosystems
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2021-03-15) Montgomery, Steven L ; Howarth, Francis ; Allison, Allen ; Reilly, Sharon ; Churchill, Jim ; Yuen, Emma ; King, Cynthia
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    First Record of the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867), on the Hawaiian Island of Lanai (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2020-10-13) Gillett, Conrad, PDT ; Honsberger, David ; Bogner, Kari K ; Sprague, Rachel S ; Matsunaga, Janis N ; Rubinoff, Daniel
    A survey for scolytine bark and ambrosia beetles undertaken on the entomologically understudied Hawaiian island of Lanai revealed for the first time the presence there of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867), a serious exotic pest of cultivated coffee. Lanai is chronologically the fourth Hawaiian island on which H. hampei has been found, following its initial detection on the island of Hawaii, followed by Oahu then Maui. We present the new records from Lanai in detail, together with a map of collecting sites and photographs of an adult specimen, demonstrating that the beetle is now widespread on Lanai, occurring at high and low elevations, and in both mesic and xeric environments.
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    Twenty Years of Complaints: Arthropods of Medical Importance in Maui County, Hawaii, from 2000 to 2019
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2020-09-04) Inskeep, Jess R
    A primary function of the Vector Control (VC) branch of the Hawaii Department of Health is managing invasive arthropods that endanger the health of Hawaii’s residents and visitors and threaten disruption to the tourism-dependent economy. To partly accomplish this task, VC inspectors and entomologists ameliorate issues of vector nuisance raised through public complaints. In this study I assessed trends in public complaints received by the Maui VC office between the years 2000 and 2019, by year, month, island region, and pest type. Mosquitoes were the most complained-about pest across all island regions, but complaints varied little by year and month. Hymenopteran (primarily bee and yellowjacket) complaints were second-most common and were more frequent at high elevation areas on the slopes of Haleakala (= “Upcountry”). Hymenopteran complaints followed an annual unimodal trend with a peak in August and a trough in January. Altogether, complaints of outdoor pests (e.g., Hymenopterans, nuisance flies) have decreased over the past 20 years, while complaints of indoor pests (e.g., cockroaches, bed bugs) have increased. Future management of vector pests in Maui County should be carried out with consideration of these long-term trends.
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    Reintroduction of a Native Hawaiian Bee, Hylaeus anthracinus (F. Smith) (Hymenoptera: Colletidae), to Part of its Former Range
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2020-08-25) Magnacca, Karl N.
    The endangered endemic coastal bee Hylaeus anthracinus (F. Smith) (Colletidae) is currently restricted to a few populations on each island from Oahu to Hawaii, which are mostly near the shoreline and vulnerable to extirpation due to environmental change or alien species incursion. At the same time, the species is absent from some sites where it formerly occurred that have once again become suitable due to habitat restoration. To increase the number of populations and test translocation as a method for Hylaeus conservation, bees were captured at highdensity sites in South Kohala, Hawaii island and released at three sites in South Kona at Puuhonua o Honaunau National Historic Park. Follow-up monitoring indicated that they successfully established at the highest-quality site with a diverse array of native plants following a single release of 100 bees, but failed to survive at two sites with high abundance of bigheaded ants (Pheidole megacephala) even after a second release. This study may serve as a model for re-establishing not only Hylaeus but other native insects that have been lost from large parts of their range.
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    Fitness Effects of Founder Female Number of Trichogramma papilionis Reared on Ephestia kuehniella
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2020-07-23) Ali, Abdulla N ; Wright, Mark G
    Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are egg parasitoids of a variety of insect pests, especially Lepidoptera, and are often mass reared in large numbers for use in augmentative biological control. Many issues with captive rearing of parasitoids may impact their effectiveness as biological control agents, including inbreeding and loss of fitness within colonies. The goal of this study was to test the effect of female founder population size on the fitness of progeny of T. papilionis over successive generations and quantify any change in their biological performance. Two parasitoid lines were reared for 10 generations using 1, 2, and 10 inseminated founder females each generation. Fitness parameters were measured in each generation including fecundity (number of eggs per female), emergence rate, and sex ratio, under two different rearing temperatures. Parasitoid founder number did not affect the mean number of eggs per female in T. papilionis over ten generations, but emergence rate and sex ratio were significantly reduced in the lower founder number treatments. These results suggest that establishing laboratory colonies with 10 or more founder females will reduce the likelihood of loss of fitness.
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    Ability of Sterile Males to Inhibit Female Remating in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2020-06-24) Shelly, Todd
    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is often used to suppress or eradicate populations of invading pest species of true fruit flies (Tephritidae). The success of the SIT depends largely on the ability of mass-reared, sterile males to compete successfully against wild males to obtain copulations with wild females. In addition, as females are often polyandrous, sterile males should inhibit female remating to a degree similar to that effected by wild males. The objective of this study was to determine whether sterile males of a genetic sexing strain of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) inhibited the remating propensity of wild females to the same degree as wild males. Females were first mated with either a sterile male from the laboratory strain or a fertile wild male. Mated females were then held 1, 10, or 20 d, then offered wild males for mating, and the incidence of rematings was scored. For each time interval, remating level was higher for females first mated to sterile, laboratory males than fertile, wild males. In addition, independent of the identity of the first male mating partner, the incidence of female remating increased with time elapsed since the initial mating. Results are compared with similar studies on other pest tephritid species.
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    The First Male Specimen of Blackburnia fulgida (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Reaffirms the Species’ Identity and Phylogenetic Placement
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2020-06-09) Liebherr, James K. ; Kahoolaa, Raina L.
    Blackburnia fulgida Liebherr was described from a single, teneral female specimen. A subsequently collected, fully sclerotized male specimen confirms the initial diagnosis of the species, and provides information on male genitalic characters. A more complete species diagnosis is presented that includes the male genitalic characters, with those male characters completing the species’ matrix representation in a previously published cladistic analysis. These more complete data confirm the species’ phylogenetic placement as a member of a Maui Nui clade also including B. kauwa Liebherr of West Maui, B. insociabilis (Blackburn) of East Maui, B. fraudator (Sharp) of Molokai, and B. filipes (Sharp) of Lanai. Of these five species, B. fulgida is the only one to occur in higher elevation Koa/ Ohia Montane Wet Forest characterized by more well-developed mesic soils and large-stature Acacia koa trees.
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    First Host Plant Record for the Endemic Hawaiian Ambrosia Beetle Xyleborus pleiades Samuelson, 1981 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2020-04-05) Gillett, Conrad, PDT ; Yousuf, Fazila ; Rubinoff, Daniel
    Cheirodendron trigynum (Gaudich.) Heller (Araliaceae) is documented as the first reported host plant for the endemic Hawaiian ambrosia beetle species Xyleborus pleiades Samuelson, 1981, based upon our rearing of an adult beetle from host plant wood collected in the island of Molokai.
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    New State Record of the Psyllid Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter, 1876) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae) for Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2020-04-05) Percy, Diana M ; Krushelnycky, Paul D ; King, Cynthia BA ; Young, Lindsay C
    We report the first state record of a widespread palaearctic psyllid species, Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter, 1876), for the state of Hawaii. This species belongs to a small genus of 13 species feeding exclusively on host plants in the plant family Amaranthaceae (Lauterer 1982, Burckhardt and Ouvrard 2012, Ouvrard 2019). Recorded host genera are Atriplex, Beta, Chenopodium, and Spinacia (Ouvrard 2019). In Hawaii, a likely host plant is Atriplex suberecta, and possibly A. semibaccata and Chenopodium oahuense.