Horizons, Volume 2

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    Foreword: Blank Spaces
    ( 2017-09-22) Beaule, Christine
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    Living in Kalihi: Remembering Stories of Struggle and Resistance
    ( 2017-09-22) Corpuz, Kathleen
    This paper exposes the various ways American settlers remove traces of Kanaka Maoli history while exemplifying colonial narratives of immigrants who struggle to survive in the present colonial space of Kalihi. I will describe the historical and political transformation of Kalihi through an analysis of devices that settlers use in the early twentieth century such as maps and newspaper advertisements to dispossess land from Kanaka Maoli. The evidence I have chosen illustrates how the transformation of land has shaped the experiences of residents of Kalihi. While settlers attempt to erase native history in the community, Kanaka Maoli continue to share their stories through their biographies and oral histories to oppose the dominant narrative of blankness forwarded by settler colonialism. Settler colonialism comes in different forms, and this paper reveals the importance to critique settler ideologies in order to return ancestral lands to Kanaka Maoli. Since many people are unaware of their participation and existence in colonialism, retrieving native histories will promote a better understanding of the current predicaments indigenous peoples face and will help create alliances among residents to make decisions that will respect the right of Kanaka Maoli to self-determination.
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    Aming Kahirapan at Kaunlaran (Our Struggles and Prosperity): Incorporating Methods of Historial Trauma to Pave a Pathway Towards Success
    ( 2017-09-22) Cacal, Stephanie
    It is often easy to blame oneself for how one feels and behaves, but rarely do people question why they are this way to begin with. Frequently, members of the Filipino Kalihi community have a subconscious negative perspective of themselves that hinder them from achieving their full potential. What many fail to realize is that traumatic events that occurred generations ago play a significant role in how the community and others view it today. This concept is called colonial mentality manifestation, and by recognizing it as one of the root causes of the community’s struggle and feelings of shame, the community can create steps towards using its methods to pave a pathway towards success. To do this, (re)sources of wealth within the community must be reclaimed. This essay challenges Filipinos in Kalihi to have conversations about their struggles, why they exist, and how the group, collaboratively, can move forward to change the narrative from stories of struggles to practices of prosperity. In a greater sense, other communities can challenge themselves to do the same in efforts to empower their community as well. In turn, after reading this piece, one can ask oneself, what struggles and wealth can be claimed and how will they help one to succeed?
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    Russian Orthographic Reform
    ( 2017-09-22) Holland, Martha A.
    To truly understand a society’s culture, study their language. The history of how the Russian language developed mirrors how Russian society evolved and changed. The written record of how the orthography changed and what influenced it sheds light on milestones within the language and, thus, its cultural as well. This paper takes a historical analysis of the Russian language from the early beginnings of the Glagolitic alphabet to modern Russian Cyrillic. This paper shows that Russian leadership in the past not only knew that language was key to a unified society, but manipulated it in such a way that would prevent any diversion from their attempts to control orthographic development and thus control an increasingly literate society. The paper will conclude with the most recent official changes to the modern Russian alphabet, but with a greater understanding and appreciation for how it was forged into Russian society.
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    The Challenges and Difficulty of Determining the Genetic Factors Associated with Autism
    ( 2017-09-22) Brotto, Kelly
    The body of this research essay stems from academic literature, as well as other organizations involved in the field of research for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Geneticists have found a correlation in the mutation or the deletion of genes in patients with ASD, predominantly on the X-chromosome. This has led researchers to delve deeper into trying to understand the roles of certain genes and how the alteration of these genes, both hereditarily and spontaneously, affect the ASD population. Thus far, research has signaled that ASD is not a one-gene-fits-all-cases type of disorder. Rather, some researchers are now trying to narrow their research to particular genes and a limited subgroup in lieu of analyzing the disorder as a whole. From the research that I have gathered, though there are many challenges that researchers face in trying to gain a fuller understanding of this field, many remain optimistic about the future.