Distributed Ledger Technology, The Blockchain

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    Overview of Licensing Platforms based on Distributed Ledger Technology
    ( 2019-01-08) Schoenhals, Alexander ; Hepp, Thomas ; Leible, Stephan ; Ehret, Philip ; Gipp, Bela
    The licensing of creative work is of broad and current interest. The European Commission proposes that when uploading a licensed digital work, the uploader should be checked by the system that one has the necessary rights. Technically this law is difficult to implement, as images with different intentions are shared, and even small changes like watermarks make it difficult to reveal similarities. The characteristics of distributed ledger technology could provide excellent support for the licensing and management of the rights of use. In this work, non-technical and technical criteria are defined to achieve an overview of the state-of-the-art solutions in the field of blockchain-based licensing platforms. Based on the criteria, different licensing platforms are reviewed, and the results are presented in a comparison matrix.
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    Exploring Preliminary Challenges and Emerging Best Practices in the Use of Enterprise Blockchains Applications
    ( 2019-01-08) Lacity, Mary ; Khan, Shaji
    Enterprise blockchain applications can allow trading partners to transact directly without relying on trusted third parties and promise to: eliminate the need for reconciliations, instantly track and trace assets through a supply chain, provide unbeatable data provenance, settle transactions quickly and cheaply, and enable an information security model that is fault tolerant, resilient, and available. Many of these promised benefits seemingly address the challenges of non-blockchain based inter-organizational systems. However, this research indicates that blockchain based inter-organizational applications pose significant challenges of their own. Based on interview and participant observation data, we identified five challenges: (1) competing blockchain standards, (2) adjusting to different shared governance models, (3) intellectual property concerns (4) industrial espionage risks, and (5) regulatory uncertainty. We also identified emerging practices stakeholders are using to address those challenges when considering enterprise blockchain applications.
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    Preparing for Blockchain Technology in the Energy Industry: How Energy Sector Leaders Can Make Informed Decisions During the Blockchain Adoption Process
    ( 2019-01-08) Farahmand, Haideh ; Farahmand, Mr Arta
    This research was motivated by the lack of literature about the constructs influencing the decision to adopt blockchain technology. This paper contributes to the knowledge by integrating common adoption and diffusion theories with a 2017 framework for blockchain adoption. This paper brings together competing adoption models with different sets of technology acceptance determinants and proposes a new model to identify constructs (i.e., ease of understanding, perceived usefulness, the perceived ease of use, knowledge acquisition, self-efficacy, and the novelty and complexity of the new technology application) as essential determinants of blockchain technology adoption at individual and organizational levels. The study offers a new model and research agenda to help executives and managers prepare for blockchain adoption and make informed decisions to speed up the adoption process. This research is focused on energy companies, which are known to be slow to adopt new technologies.
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    Towards a Distributed Ledger System for Supply Chains
    ( 2019-01-08) Asprion, Petra ; Hübner, Philipp ; Moriggl, Pascal
    Interoperability and traceability of digital supply chains are becoming a major competitive factor. Businesses operating in supply chains need to share interoperable information and systematically track product and service deliveries. This research investigates a novel approach to model digital supply chains and operationalizes this through a "Distributed Ledger System" in combination with "Smart Contracts". Based on design science, relevance and rigor for a novel approach are derived. As resulting ‘artifacts’, exemplary supply chains using colored Petri-nets are modeled as a structured and automatable instance for the sketched ‘Token-flow Supply Chains’. For the operation of our visionary scenario, a baseline concept with an associated architecture is drafted. We argue that the outlined approach and related artifacts are predestined to achieve a new quality of performance and innovation including bridging the current challenges for digital supply chains.
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    Towards a Decentralized Process for Scientific Publication and Peer Review using Blockchain and IPFS
    ( 2019-01-08) Tenorio-Fornés, Antonio ; Jacynycz, Viktor ; Llop-Vila, David ; Sánchez-Ruiz, Antonio ; Hassan, Samer
    The current processes of scientific publication and peer review raise concerns around fairness, quality, performance, cost, and accuracy. The Open Access movement has been unable to fulfill all its promises, and a few middlemen publishers can still impose policies and concentrate profits. This paper, using emerging distributed technologies such as Blockchain and IPFS, proposes a decentralized publication system for open science. The proposed system would provide (1) a distributed reviewer reputation system, (2) an Open Access by-design infrastructure, and (3) transparent governance processes. A survey is used to evaluate the problems, proposed solutions and possible adoption resistances, while a working prototype serves as a proof-of-concept. Additionally, the paper discusses the implementation, in a distributed context, of different privacy settings for both open peer review and reputation systems, introducing a novel approach supporting both anonymous and accountable reviews. The paper concludes reviewing the open challenges of this ambitious proposal.