Critical and Ethical Studies of Digital and Social Media

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    Sex, Drugs, and Alcohol in the Digital Neighborhood: A multi-method analysis of online discourse amongst Black and Hispanic Youth
    ( 2019-01-08) Stevens, Robin ; Bonett, Stephen ; Kenyatta, Kahaari ; Chittamuru, Deepti ; Bleakley, Amy
    In the digital neighborhood, Black and Hispanic youth communicate their perspectives about a myriad of issues facing youth, including sex and substance use. This population of young people are also disproportionately burdened by negative outcomes associated with sex and substance use behaviors, even when their behavior is less risky. Given the increased likelihood of negative outcomes, we investigated how youth talk about these behaviors in their online social networks. This mixed methods study integrates a behavioral survey with a machine learning-supported, qualitative content analysis of one year of Facebook and Twitter posts from 50 participants, with feedback from a youth advisory board. Findings suggest that participants who drank were more likely to post about alcohol. Women posted more about STIs, HIV and pregnancy. Posts around sexual behavior often discussed trust in sexual partnerships and gendered views of sex. Alcohol and marijuana were used to relieve stress, to handle personal grief and community violence, and as a coping mechanism for general distress. Understanding how youth think about sexual risk and substance use can inform the design of more effective prevention efforts.
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    Annotating Social Media Data From Vulnerable Populations: Evaluating Disagreement Between Domain Experts and Graduate Student Annotators
    ( 2019-01-08) Patton, Desmond ; Blandfort, Philipp ; Frey, William ; Gaskell, Michael ; Karaman, Svebor
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    Inscribing Gender: A Duoethnographic Examination of Gendered Values and Practices in Fitness Tracker Design
    ( 2019-01-08) Cifor, Marika ; Garcia, Patricia
    Using fitness trackers to generate and collect quantifiable data is a widespread practice aimed at better understanding one’s health and body. The intentional design of fitness trackers as genderless or universal is predicated on masculinist design values and assumptions and does not result in “neutral” artifacts. Instead, ignoring gender in the design of fitness tracking devices marks a dangerous ongoing inattention to the needs, desires, lives, and life chances of women, as well as transgender and gender non-conforming persons. We utilize duoethnography, a methodology emphasizing personal narrative and dialogue, as a tool that promotes feminist reflexivity in the design and study of fitness tracking technologies. Using the Jawbone UP3 as our object of study, we present findings that illustrate the gendered physical and interface design features and discuss how these features reproduce narrow understandings of gender, health, and lived experiences.
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    Better, Nicer, Clearer, Fairer: A Critical Assessment of the Movement for Ethical Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
    ( 2019-01-08) Greene, Daniel ; Hoffmann, Anna Lauren ; Stark, Luke
    This paper uses frame analysis to examine recent high-profile values statements endorsing ethical design for artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML). Guided by insights from values in design and the sociology of business ethics, we uncover the grounding assumptions and terms of debate that make some conversations about ethical design possible while forestalling alternative visions. Vision statements for ethical AI/ML co-opt the language of some critics, folding them into a limited, technologically deterministic, expert-driven view of what ethical AI/ML means and how it might work.
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