1 - 3 of 3
ItemSide Effects of National Immunization Program: E-Governance Support Toward Elders' Digital Inclusion( 2022-01-04)In response to the coronavirus pandemic, the European Union (EU) governments develop policies to regulate exclusive health protection actions that consider societal needs with the emphasis on elders. Given that the EU vaccination strategy uses a centralized ICT-based approach, there is little guidance on how seniors are included in national immunization programs (NIP). In this paper, we addressed a knowledge gap of the side effects of e-governance of NIP for the elderly. To fill this gap, we identified 40 side effects by analyzing online textual opinions (tweets, comments, articles) that express public perception regarding the results of the Polish NIP implementation to seniors' digital inclusion, categorized them into 8 categories and assign them to four e-governance functions. The main contribution of this paper is a better understanding of the digital divide and to provide guidelines for government policy improvement.
ItemMonitoring and Measurement of Digital Inclusion: A Critical Analysis of Key Global Frameworks( 2022-01-04)Taking up the challenge laid down by the High-Level Panel on Digital Co-operation to develop a global framework for measuring digital inclusion, this paper analyses ten current international and national attempts to measure and monitor digital inclusion. Two key questions are asked: What indicators of digital inclusion or inequality exist in current international initiatives? What, if any, are the weaknesses of current indicators to support strategic and practical decision making facilitating digital inclusion? Collectively the ten initiatives include 303 indicators, with access, (127 indictors), skills (62), use (50) and supporting environment (29) emerging as dominate clusters. Skills related to the digital age such as digital competence, critical thinking, innovation, and entrepreneurship are limited. Sup-porting elements such as financial inclusion, online identification, security, and trust are largely missing. Focus is on country level data and comparisons. User specific and geographical segmentation of indicators is rare thus limiting their value to decision makers in pinpointing areas, communities, and individuals at risk of digital exclusion.