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ItemSustained participation in open source: A psychological contract approach( 2022-01-04)We propose the use of the psychological contract as an alternative theoretical lens to study sustained participation and engagement in open source, which is often used as an example of new forms of digitized independent work. Psychological contracts are the set of beliefs held by individuals of their personal exchange with an organization and other actors with which they work. While previous literature has tended to study inducements (e.g., intrinsic or extrinsic motivation) on its own, the psychological contract studies the relation between an individual’s expected inducements and contributions. If these expectations are unmet, a breach can take place that will affect contributor engagement. We suggest the usefulness of this theory in understanding why and how open source participants decide to stop or reduce their involvement. Participants hold multiple psychological contracts with the project, fellow developers, and users. The findings show that breach can be experienced with all of them either due to unmet contributions or inducements. We suggest further research into such breaches is required to understand their consequences on the sustainability of open source projects.
ItemDesigner? User? Player! – A Framework of Opportunities to Improve Interpersonal Dynamics During Usability Testing Through Gamification( 2022-01-04)Usability testing is an important technique in the design process. However, most existing research takes usability testing as a research method, not as the research topic itself. This paper explores the relationships and the interpersonal dynamics between participants and researchers during usability testing. In this study, we use interviews and observations to uncover the interpersonal dynamics that might be hidden in the complex multilevel structure of the testing process. Our findings suggest that interpersonal dynamics impact the testing experience and results: participants in a nervous or tense atmosphere may not perform as in real life or conceal their real thoughts. To improve the usability testing experience and results, we developed a framework of opportunities for improving the interpersonal dynamics through gamification.