Honors Projects for Civil Engineering
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ItemStiffness Analysis of the Academy Towers Building Honolulu, Hawaii( 1974)The Academy Towers Building is located at the corner of Ward Avenue and Green Street in Honolulu, Hawaii.It is a twentyseven (27) story building consisting of two dwelling units per floor. A special structural feature of this building is that there is a very stiff beam on the roof of the building. This increases the stiffness of the building thus reducing the lateral displacement of different floors due to lateral forces. A stiffness analysis of the structure is the basis of my investigation. The displacement of all floors are computed as the building is subjected to wind or earthquake. Wind load and earthquake load are computed according to the 1973 uniform Building Code,Part VI, Chapter 23, on general design requirements. The period of the building is also computed. The same analysis is done again on the same building with the assumption that there is no stiff beam on the roof. It is concluded that the stiff beam on the roof reduces the displacement due to earthquake load by 40% and also the period is also reduced by 10% to 20%.

ItemThe Numerical Solution of the Navier Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Inviscid Fluid with a Free Surface(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)This paper discusses a method of describing the timedependent motion of an incompressible, inviscid (ideal) fluid in two dimensions. The fluid in this project has rigid boundaries on all sides except for a free surface over which there is assumed to be a uniform pressure. The effects of gravity and this free surface condition will be studied. To describe fluid's motion the Navier Stokes equations, in two forms – Lagrangian and Eulerian – will be utilizaed. Basically the method involves coupling the Eulerian and Lagrangian systems of equations. The Lagrangian equations follow the location of the free surface and all elements of the fluid, and also determines fluid particle velocities. Composed of a fixed coordinate system, the Eulerian system is used to compute the pressure at various points in the fluid. With the advent of the Computer Age, the nonlinear terms of the Navier Stokes equations, which classical theory neglected, can be retained and solved by numerical methods. This project employs the IBM 360, a high speed computer with a large memory core, to solve the Navier Stokes equations by the finite difference method. Although much work on the numerical solution of these equations for different fluid conditions has been done in the last few years, there has been no previous solution for this particular problem.

ItemLateral Load Analysis of the Academy Towers Building, Honolulu, Hawaii(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)The Academy Towers Building is a relatively new condominium located at the corner of Ward Avenue and Green Street in Honolulu, Hawaii. It is a twentyseven (27) story building consisting of two dwelling units per floor. A lateral load analysis of this structure is the basis of this investigation. Forces, reactions and displacements of important joints and members of each floor are computed for both wind and earthquake loadings. Wind loads and earthquake loads are computed according to the 1973 Uniform Building Code, Part VI, Chapter 23, on general design requirements. A unique structural feature of this building is the extremely stiff beams located on the roof which affect the response of lateral loadings significantly in this study. It is concluded that the stiffness of the shear walls and the stiff beams on the roof are dominant factors in resisting lateral deformations to wind and earthquake loads.

ItemStream Water Quality as a Function of Runoff From Different Land Users(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)Manoa Stream was selected for this study relating stream pollution and various land use classifications. In addition, the concentrations of chemical, physical, and bacteriological parameters were also compared with State water quality standards to see if the water was polluted according to this criteria. The stream was divided into different stations with corresponding drainage basins, each of which contained different land types. Water samples were collected at the different stations by Ching (1) and analyzed, and flows were approximated by analytical methods since they were not measured by Ching at the time of sampling. With the concentration of constituents, land areas, and flow values the pollution load, in lbs/acre/day, for each incremental drainage area was then calculated and subsequently related to various land activities. It was concluded that mountainous areas, where rains, containing constituents from the atmosphere (6), fall initially and most severely, and heavy vegetation contribute substantially to the pollution loading of the stream. In urban areas, an increase in pollution load is generally noted for a corresponding increase in urban activity, such as an increase in residential land use. In addition according to Chapter 37A of the Public Health Regulations (7), the bacteriological levels in Manoa Stream, which is classified as class 2 waters, exceeds the bacteriological standards defined in those regulations. Also, since Manoa Stream flows into the Ala Wai Boat Harbor, total phosphorus and total nitrogen standards are violated.

ItemCharacteristics of Solar Radiation in Hawaii(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)A survey has been made to investigate the characteristics of solar radiation in Hawaii. Solar radiation data for over 60 monitoring stations have been examined, and they are generally located in the low elevation plain areas. Correlation study indicated that median annual rainfall intensity is related closely to mean annual insolation levels. However, rainfall is not a good indicator for direct forecast of insolation. The model of clear sky insolation on horizontal surface has been studied. A Fortran computer program has been written for simulation of clear sky insolation. The similarity between the diurnal insolation patterns and the clear sky patterns indicates that the clear day model may be used to estimate the actual insolation. For estimating the long term mean annual insolation, a model is proposed to compare one year of data at any site to a currently existing monitoring station. The mean monthly insolation of a station may be estimated if the mean annual insolation of that station is known.

ItemLime Stabilization of Expansive Montmorillonite Clays(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)In almost every case when a structure must be built, the final base support must be in the soil. However, not all construction sites will have soil that is able to supply the required bearing capacities for the weight of the structure. There are, essentially, three methods of dealing with such conditions. These are 1) ByPass: In this case the soil stratas are ByPassed until a firm bearing statum is found below. Support for the structure, then, is provided by friction or end bearing piles which extend to a rockbasalt or similar firm bearing layer. 2) Remove and Replace: Here, the unsatisfactory soil is partially or completely removed and replaced by a suitable material. There are many times when either a soft peat layer or a highly expansive soil is replaced by this suitable material which can be compacted to provide adequate support. This method is especially advantageous if the required material is conveniently located at a nearby site. 3) Treatment of Soil: The third method, of which this report will be concentrating on, is that of chemically or mechanically stabilizing the soil to attain the desired support.

ItemWeb Crippling in Steel Beams(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)Flanged beams usually have web's that are relatively thin and thus weak when placed in compression. Hence, it behaves in a manner similar to that of a column in compression1, a reasonable assumption backed by experimental data. Therefore, vertical buckling of the web will occur as one of the four types shown in fig.l.a. depending on the type and condition of support of the top flange. This kind of buckling usually occurs where there are large concentrated loads such as the reactions at the beam supports or where there are columns or other beams laying on the top flange. There is also the possibility of the web failing as shown in fig.l.b. which is called web crippling. Experience and tests have shown that if a beam will not fail due to web crippling it will also be safe from vertical buckling. Thus, only web crippling is usually investigated which will account for vertical buckling.

ItemA Revision of the Flexible Pavement Design Method of the City and County of Honolulu(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)Roads and highways are vital for the welfare, economy, and way of life of our nation. They are the primary routes of automobiles and trucks, two of the four major classes of land based transportation systems (the other two are railroads and pipelines). In the United States, automobiles are the most important means of passenger travel and, in fact, account for more than fourfifths of all the miles traveled by Americans today.1 Trucks, with their great mobility and ability to carry heavy loads are crucial to practically every type of industry. Statistically, they transport 25 percent of all the freight in our country.2 Other methods of transportation that utilize roads and highways include buses, motorcycles, motorscooters, and bicycles. Throughout America there are approximately 3,700,000 miles of surfaced and unsurfaced streets, roads, and highways.3 Quite understandably, billions of dollars are spent yearly for the building of new roads and the maintaining of existing ones ($21,652,000,000 in 1972).4 Although tremendously costly, these expenses are well justified because without a good system of well designed roads the proficiency of the highly essential automobile, truck, and various other landbased modes of transportation would be extremely retarded.

ItemApplication of the Finite Element Method in Selected Civil Engineering Problems(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)For many engineering problems, an analytical solution is often difficult or impossible. Thus engineers often turn to numerical methods which provide approximate answers of sufficient accuracy to be acceptable. Such a numerical method is the finite element method, one of the newest and most powerful of the numerical methods. The finite element method was developed principally for use in structural mechanics. The wide range of applicability of this method is just beginning to be realized. The general nature of the theory on which it is based will soon lead to applications in many other fields in engineering. The widespread popularity which the method will certainly enjoy will be due to the versatility of the method and the ease with which it can be used. The method is able to handle such difficult problems as nonhomogeneous materials, nonlinear stressstrain behavior, and complicated boundary conditions. Other numerical methods are not able to handle the above complexities.(Desai, 1972) Vigorous mathematical interpretation of the method is not necessary for it's use. The method can be used (especially in structural mechanics where the steps involved have been worked out in almost a cookbook fashion) without knowing the underlying theory behind the formulation of the terms in the basic matrix equation to be solved. This kind of approach is illustrated by a three element cantilever beam problem which is discussed in this thesis. The problem can be handled by merely knowing certain formulas for composing a stiffness matrix for the beam. In solving the problem, the author was able to formulate the stiffness matrix and write a program solving the matrix equation without knowing anything about the energy principles involved. The explanations included in the thesis were composed after the program had been written. The opposite approach is illustrated by the second problem discussed in this thesis. The second problem, dealing with steady state potential flow problems, requires a detailed understanding of the principles involved and of the finite element method. Thus the thesis is composed basically of three parts. The first is a general description of the finite element method. The second is a solution of a simple structural mechanics problem worked out to familiarize the author with the finite element method. The third part is a very detailed explanation of basic principles and finite element techniques required in the solution of steady state potential flow problems. Included are several typical problems using a program written by Richard Cooley and John Peters (Cooley, Peters, 1970) of the Corps of Engineers.

ItemDigital Computer Representation of a Potential Flow Model of GroundWater Recharge(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 20140115)Artificial recharge or the replenishment of water bearing strata has been practiced in Europe since the beginning of nineteenth century, first in Scotland and France, later in England, Germany, and Sweden. In New Jersey, the Perth Amboy Water Work for more than fifty years has artificially recharged the old Bridge sand of the Upper Cretaceous Age and has derived four to five mgd of water from this source. One of the main purposes of artificial recharge is water conservation. The source of recharge may be storm runoff, river water, water used for cooling purposes, industrial waste water and treated sewage water. What will be considered here is the recharge of water into the groundwater strata. In particular, recharge, through wells, into a uniform groundwater flow will be investigated. Recently constructed waste water plants on Maui and Oahu have been using the recharge method to inject waste water through several wells into the groundwater flow underneath. Subsequently, the waste water is carried out to the ocean with the residual flow. On a design basis, one is interested in the streamline pattern of the resultant groundwater system in the vicinity of the wells. As in the case of the waste water plant, the designer might be particularly interested in the lateral extent of the flow pattern that intersects the coastline, as well as the location of the dividing streamline. The purpose of this study is to write a computer program, whose output will describe the streamline pattern of such a case. For the purpose of illustration, the case of one well and three wells located on a straight line normal to the uniform field and parallel to the coast, will be treated. In order to have a better visualization of the resultant flow field structure, a specially designed program, SYMAP, is used for producing the flow maps. The SYMAP program is available at the University of Hawaii computing center and is written in Fortran IV. It is primarily a computer program for producing maps which graphically depict spatially disposed quantitative and qualitative information and is suited to a broad range of applications.