Stream Water Quality as a Function of Runoff From Different Land Users

Lee, Ronald
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University of Hawaii at Manoa
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Manoa Stream was selected for this study relating stream pollution and various land use classifications. In addition, the concentrations of chemical, physical, and bacteriological parameters were also compared with State water quality standards to see if the water was polluted according to this criteria. The stream was divided into different stations with corresponding drainage basins, each of which contained different land types. Water samples were collected at the different stations by Ching (1) and analyzed, and flows were approximated by analytical methods since they were not measured by Ching at the time of sampling. With the concentration of constituents, land areas, and flow values the pollution load, in lbs/acre/day, for each incremental drainage area was then calculated and subsequently related to various land activities. It was concluded that mountainous areas, where rains, containing constituents from the atmosphere (6), fall initially and most severely, and heavy vegetation contribute substantially to the pollution loading of the stream. In urban areas, an increase in pollution load is generally noted for a corresponding increase in urban activity, such as an increase in residential land use. In addition according to Chapter 37-A of the Public Health Regulations (7), the bacteriological levels in Manoa Stream, which is classified as class 2 waters, exceeds the bacteriological standards defined in those regulations. Also, since Manoa Stream flows into the Ala Wai Boat Harbor, total phosphorus and total nitrogen standards are violated.
48 pages
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